Binary X-Ray Pulsars

  • Saul Rappaport
  • Paul C. Joss
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 87)


As X-ray astronomy enters the Einstein era when faint, distant, and exotic X-ray sources are being investigated, we thought it might be useful to review some of the progress made over the past decade on a class of relatively nearby objects that have contributed richly to our understanding of astrophysics — the binary X-ray pulsars. We shall touch briefly on three general topics related to X-ray pulsar research: (1) pulse profiles, (2) studies of pulse periods, and (3) orbital determinations and the evaluation of binary system parameters. We shall also discuss three special topics of current interest: (1) the apsidal motion test in X-ray binaries; (2) 4U1626-67 and the nature of highly compact X-ray binary systems; and (3) searches for new X-ray pulsars in the Einstein era. Most of the data that we shall invoke were obtained with the Uhuru, Copernicus, Ariel 5, SAS-3, 0S0-8, and HEAO-1 satellites.


Orbital Period Neutron Star Accretion Disk Pulse Period Power Density Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnett, W.D., and Bowers, R.L., 1977. Astrophys. J. Supple 33, 415.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett, W.D., and Schramm, D.N., 1973. Astrophys. J. 184, L47.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avni, Y. 1976. Astrophys. J. 209, 574.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avni, Y. 1978. In “Physics and Astrophysics of Neutron Stars and Black Holes”, ed. R. Giacconi and R. Ruffini ( Amsterdam: North Holland ), p. 43.Google Scholar
  5. Avni, Y., and Bahcall, J.N., 1975a. Astrophys. J. 197, 675.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avni, Y., and Bahcall, J.N., 1975b. Astrophys. J. Lett. 202, L131• L131.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avni, Y., and Bahcall, J.N., 1976. In “X-Ray Binaries” (NASA SP-389), p. 615.Google Scholar
  8. Baan, W.A., and Treves, A., 1973. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 421.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahcall, J. 1978a. In “Physics and Astrophysics of Neutron Stars and Black Holes”, ed. R. Giacconi and R. Ruffini ( Amsterdam: North Holland ), p. 63.Google Scholar
  10. Bahcall, J. 1978b. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 241.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahcall, J.J., and Chester, T.J., 1977. Astrophys. J. Lett. 215, L21.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basko, M.M., and Sunyaev, R.A., 1975. Astron. Astrophys. 42, 311.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Basko, M.M., Hatchett, S., McCray, R. and Sunyaev, R.A., 1977. Astrophys. J. 215, 276.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baym, G., and Pethick, C., 1979. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 415.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Becker, R.H., Swank, J.H., Boldt, E.A., Holt, S.S., Pravdo, S.H., Saba, J.R., and Serlemitsos, P.J., 1977. Astrophys. J. Lett. 216, L11.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Becker, R.H., Rothschild, R.E., Boldt, E.A., Holt, S.S., Pravdo, S.H., Serlemitsos, P.J., and Swank, J.H., 1978. Astrophys. J. 221, 912.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boynton, P., and Deeter, J., 1979. In “Compact Galactic X-Ray Sources” (ed. F. Lamb and D. Pines ), p. 168.Google Scholar
  18. Bradt, H.V., Apparao, K.M.V., Dower, R., Doxsey, R.E., Jernigan, J.G. and Markert, T.H., 1977. Nature 269, 496.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Canal, R., and Schatzman, E., 1976. Astron. Astrophys. 71, 217.Google Scholar
  20. Chester, T.J., 1978. Astrophys. J. 222, 652.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chevalier, C., and Ilovaisky, S.A., 1977. Astron. Astrophys. 59, L9.ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Cominsky, L., Clark, G.W., Li, F., Mayer, W., and Rappaport, S., 1978. Nature 273, 367.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conti, P.S., 1978, Astron. Astrophys. 63, 225.ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Cowley, A.P., Crampton, D., and Hutchings, J.B., 1979. Astrophys. J. 231, 539.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cowling, T.G., 1938. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 98, 734.ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. Crampton, D., Hutchings, J.B., and Cowley, A.P., 1978. Astrophys. J. Lett. 225, L63.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davidson, K., and Ostriker, J.P., 1973 Astrophys. J. 179, 585.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davies, R.E., Fabian, A.C., and Pringle, J.E., 1979. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 186, 779.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis, R. Jr., 1978. In “Proc. Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Conference”, Vol. 1, p. 1.Google Scholar
  30. Davison, P.J.N., Watson, M.G., and Pye, J.P., 1977. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 181, 73p.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Dower, R.G., Apparao, K.M., Bradt, H.V., Doxsey, R.E., Jernigan, J.G., and Kulik, J., 1978. Nature 273, 364.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elsner, R.F., and Lamb, F.K., 1976. Nature 262, 356.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fabbiano, G., and Schreier, E.J., 1977. Astrophys. J. 214, 235.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Faulkner, J., 1971. Astrophys. J. Lett. 170, L99.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Faulkner, J., 1974, in “IAU Symp. No. 66”, ed. R.J. Tayler (Dordrecht: Reidel), p. 155. Faulkner, J., 1979. Private communication.Google Scholar
  36. Fechner, W.B., and Joss, P.C., 1977. Astrophys. J. Lett. 213, L57.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fechner, W.B., and Joss, P.C., 1978. Nature 274, 347.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Forman, W., Jones, C., Tananbaum, H., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., and Giacconi, R., 1973. Astrophys. J. Lett. 182, L103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ghosh, P., Lamb, F.K., and Pethick, C.J., 1977. Astrophys. J. 217, 578.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ghosh, P., and Lamb, F.K., 1978. Astrophys. J. Lett. 223, L83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ghosh, P., and Lamb, F.K., 1979. Astrophys. J. 234, 296.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giacconi, R., 1974. In Astrophysics and Gravitation, Proceedings of the 16th International Solvay Congress, (Brussels: Universite de Bruxelles), p. 27.Google Scholar
  43. Giacconi, R., Murray, S., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Schreier, E., and Tananbaum, H., 1972. Astrophys. J. 178, 281.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Giacconi, R. et al., 1979. Astrophys. J. 230, 540.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gnedin, Yu.N. and Sunyaev, R.A., 1973. Astron. Astrophys. 25, 233.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Gursky, H. 1976. In “IAU Symp. No. 73”, ed. P. Eggleton, S. Mitton, and J. Whelan ( Dordrecht: Reidel ), p. 19.Google Scholar
  47. Gursky, H., and Schreier, E., 1975. In “Neutron Stars, Black Holes and Binary X-Ray Sources”, ed. H. Gursky and R. Ruffini ( Dordrecht; Reidel ), p. 175.Google Scholar
  48. Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G., Zuiderwijk, E.J., van den Heuvel, E.P.J., and Hensberge, H., 1976. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 321.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Hutchings, J.B., 1976. In “X-Ray Binaries” (NASA SP-389), p. 531.Google Scholar
  50. Hutchings, J.B., 1980. Private communication.Google Scholar
  51. Hutchings, J.B., Crampton, D., Cowley, A.P., and Osmer, P.S., 1977. Astrophys. J. 217, 186.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hutchings, J.B., Crampton, D., and Cowley, A.P., 1978. Astrophys. J. 225, 548.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hutchings, J.B., Cowley, A.P., Crampton, D., van Paradijs, J., and White, N.E., 1979. Astrophys. J. 229, 1079.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Iben, I., 1974. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 215.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ilovaisky, S.A., Motch, Ch., and Chevalier, C. 1978. Astron. Astrophys. 70, L19.ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Ives, J.C., Sanford, P.W., and Bell Burnell, S.J., 1975. Nature 254, 578.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Johns, M., Koski, A., Canizares, C., and McClintock, J., 1978. IAU Circ., No. 3171.Google Scholar
  58. Johnston, M., Bradt, H., Doxsey, R., Gursky, H., Schwartz, D., and Schwarz, J., 1978. Astrophys. J. Lett. 223, L71.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Joss, P.C., 1980. This volume.Google Scholar
  60. Joss, P.C., and Rappaport, S., 1976. Nature 264, 219.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Joss, P.C., and Rappaport, S., 1979. Astron. Astrophys. 71, 217.ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Joss, P.C., and Rappaport, S., 1980. Rev. Mod. Phys., in preparation.Google Scholar
  63. Joss, P.C., Avni, Y., and Rappaport, S., 1978. Astrophys. J. 221, 645.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Joss, P.C., Li, F., Nelson, J., and Middleditch, J., 1980. Astrophys J. 235, 592.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kelley, R., Rappaport, S., and Petre, R., 1980. Astrophys. J., in press.Google Scholar
  66. Kelley, R., Apparao, K., Doxsey, R., Jernigan, G., Naranan, S., and Rappaport, S., 1980a. Submitted to Astrophys. J.Google Scholar
  67. Kelley, R., Rappaport, S., Brodheim, M. and Cominsky, L., 1980b. In preparation.Google Scholar
  68. Kopal, Z., 1965. Adv. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 89.Google Scholar
  69. Kumar, S.S., 1963. Astrophys. J. 137, 1121.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lamb, F.K., Pethick, C.J., and Pines, D., 1973. Astrophys. J. 184, 271.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lamb, F.K., Pines, D., and Shaham, J., 1978. Astrophys. J. 224, 969.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lamb, F.K., and Boynton, P., 1980. Private communication.Google Scholar
  73. Lamb, R.C., Markert, T.H., Hartman, R.C., Thompson, D.J., and Bignami, G.F., 1980. Astrophys. J., in press.Google Scholar
  74. Landau, L.D. and Lifshitz, E.M., 1962. The Classical Theory of FieldsMATHGoogle Scholar
  75. Li, F., Rappaport, S., Clark, G.W., and Jernigan, J.G., 1979. Astrophys. J. 228, 893.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Li, F., Rappaport, S. and Epstein, A., 1978. Nature 271, 37.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Li, F., Joss, P.C., McClintock, J.E., Rappaport, S., and Wright, E., 1980. Astrophys. J. 240, in press.Google Scholar
  78. Manchester, R.N. and Taylor, J.H., 1977. “Pulsars” ( San Francisco: Freeman ), p. 18.Google Scholar
  79. Mason, K.O., 1977. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 178, 81p.ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. McClintock, J.E., Canizares, C.R., Li, F.K., and Grindlay, J.E., 1980. Astrophys. J. Lett. 235, L81.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Middleditch, J., and Nelson, J., 1976. Astrophys. J. 208, 567. Middleditch, J., Mason, K.O., Nelson, J., and White, N., 1980. Preprint.Google Scholar
  82. Nandy, K., and Schmidt, E.G., 1975. Astrophys. J. 198, 119.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ögelman, H., Beuermann, K.P., Kanbach, G., Mayer-Hasselwander, H.A., Capozzi, D., Fiordilino, E., and Molteni, D., 1977. Astron. Astrophys. 58, 385.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Okuda, T., and Sakashita, S., 1977. Astrophys. Space Sci. 47, 385.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Paczyriski, B., 1967. Acta Astronomica 17, 287.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Parkes, G.E., Mason, K.O., Murdin, P.G., and Culhane, J.L., 1980. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 191, 547.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Peterson, B.A., Wallace, P., Elliot, K.H., Hill, R.W., and Manchester, R.N., 1980. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 190, 33P.ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Petterson, J.A., 1978. Astrophys. J. 224, 625.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Plavec, M., 1968. Adv. Astron. Astrophys. 6, 201.Google Scholar
  90. Pounds, K.A., Cooke, B.A., Ricketts, M.J., Turner, M.J., and Elvis, M., 1975. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 172, 473.ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Pounds, K.A. 1976. Talk presented at the Meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division, American Astronomical Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 1976.Google Scholar
  92. Pravdo, S.H., White, N.E., Boldt, E.A., Holt, S.S., Serlemitsos, P.J., Swank, J.H., Szymkowiak, A.E., Tuohy, I., and Garmire, G., 1979. Astrophys. J. 231, 912.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pravdo, S.H., and Bussard, R.W., 1980. Submitted to Astrophys. J. Lett.Google Scholar
  94. Primini, F., Rappaport, S., Joss, P.C., Clark, G.W., Lewin, W., Li, F., Mayer, W., and McClintock, J., 1976. Astrophys. J. Lett. 210, L71.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Primini, F., Rappaport, S., and Joss, P.C., 1977. Astrophys. J. 217, 543.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pringle, J.E., and Rees, M.J., 1972. Astron. Astrophys. 21, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Rappaport, S., 1979. In “Proc. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Compact X-Ray Sources”, Cape Sounion, Greece, June 1979.Google Scholar
  98. Rappaport, S., Joss, P.C., and McClintock, J.E., 1976. Astrophys. J. Lett. 206, L103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rappaport, S., and Joss, P.C., 1977a. Nature 226, 123.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rappaport, S., and Joss, P.C., 1977b. Nature 266, 683.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rappaport, S., and Joss, P.C., 1977c. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 302, 460.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rappaport, S., Markert, T., Li, F.K., Clark, G.W., Jernigan, J.G.; and McClintock, J.E., 1977. Astrophys. J. Lett. 217, L29.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rappaport, S., Clark, G.W., Cominsky, L., Joss, P.C., and Li, F.K., 1978. Astrophys. J. Lett. 224, L1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rappaport, S., and Li, F.K., 1979. Unpublished SAS-3 data.Google Scholar
  105. Rappaport, S., Joss, P.C., and Stothers, R., 1980. Astrophys. J. 235, 570.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Russell, H.N., 1928. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 88, 641.ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Schreier, E.J., Levinson, R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Tananbaum, H., and Giacconi, R., 1972a. Astrophys. J. Lett. 172, L79.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schreier, E.J., Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., and Tananbaum, H., 1972b. Astrophys. J. Lett. 178, L71.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schreier, E.J., and Fabbiano, G., 1976. “In X-Ray Binaries” (NASA SP-389), p. 197.Google Scholar
  110. Schwarzschild, M., 1958. “Structure and Evolution of the Stars” (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  111. Shapiro, S.L., and Lightman, A.P., 1976. Astrophys. J. 204, 555. Sterne, T.E., 1939. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 99, 451. Stothers, R., 1974. Astrophys. J. 194, 651.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sterne, T.E ., 1939. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 99, 451.ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  113. Stothers, R., 1974. Astrophys. J. 194, 651.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tananbaum, H., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E.M., Levinson, R., Schreier, E., and Giacconi, R., 1972. Astrophys. J. Lett. 174, L143.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Taylor, J., Fowler, L.A., and McCulloqh, P.M., 1979. Nature 277, 437.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tsuruta, S., 1975. Ann. N.I. Acad. Sei. 262, 391. Ulmer, M.P., 1976. Astrophys. J. 204, 548.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ulmer, M.P., 1976. Astrophys. J. 204, 548.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. van den Heuvel, E.P.J., 1975. Astrophys. J. Lett. 198, L109.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. van den Heuvel, E.P.J., 1976. In “Structure and Evolution of Close Binary Systems”, ed. P. Eggleton ( Dordrecht: Reidel ), p. 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. van den Heuvel, E.P.J., 1977. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sei. 302, 14.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. van Paradijs, J., Zuiderwijk, E.J., Takens, R.J., Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G., van den Heuvel, E.P.J., and de Loore, C., 1977. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 30, 195.ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. van Paradijs, J.A., Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G., and Zuiderwijk, E.J., 1978. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 31, 189.ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. van Speybroeck, L., and Bechtold, J., 1980. Private communication.Google Scholar
  124. Vidal, N.V., 1973. Astrophys. J. Lett. 186, L81.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang, Y.M., 1975. Nature 253, 249.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Watson, M.G., and Griffiths, R.E., 1977. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 178, 513.ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Webbink, R., 1979. Private communication.Google Scholar
  128. White, N.E., 1979. Private communication.Google Scholar
  129. White, N.E., Mason, K.0., Huckle, H.E., Charles, P.A., and Sanford, P.W., 1976. Astrophys. J. Lett. 209, L119.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. White, N.E., Mason, K.O., and Sanford, P.W., 1977. Nature 267, 229.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. White, N.E., Mason, K.O., and Sanford, P.W., 1978. Mon. Not. R. astron. Soc. 184, 67p.ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. White, N.E., Parkes, G.E., Sanford, P.W., Mason, K.O., and Murdin, P.G., 1978. Nature 274, 665.ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. White, N.E., and Pravdo, S.H., 1979. Astrophys. J. Lett. 233, L121.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yahel, R.Z., 1979. Astrophys. J. Lett. 229, L73.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saul Rappaport
    • 1
  • Paul C. Joss
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Center for Space ResearchMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations