Advertisement

Passive Immunity Against Enteric Viral Infections of Piglets

  • E. H. Bohl
  • Linda J. Saif
Part of the Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science book series (CTVM, volume 12)

Abstract

An immunologic system has evolved whereby newborn animals derive an appreciable degree of protection from enteric infections by means of passive immunity. This report explores some of the facets of this system, using infections of swine with transmissible gastroenteritis virus, rotavirus, or enterovirus as examples. In swine, and probably in most mono gastric animals, passive immunity against enteric infections is dependent on the ingestion — at normal intervals for the particular species — of colostrum or milk which contain appropriate levels of specific antibodies, with those of the IgA class being most protective. In swine, and probably in most mono gastric animals, antibodies of the IgA class appear to occur in mammary secretions only, or primarily, as a result of an appropriate antigenic stimulation of the intestinal tract. This type of information, and the variables involved, is of special value when attempting to design an immunisation programme which will provide passive immunity against enteric infections.

Many enteric infections occur as enzootics, wherein young animals become infected during the suckling period or shortly after weaning. Pigs are usually protected from rotaviral or enteroviral infections during the first 2 to 5 weeks of age because of passive immunity, after which time an intestinal infection usually occurs. The occurrence and possible significance of boosting lactogenic immunity by natural re-infection or by vaccination are discussed and some results given.

Keywords

Passive Immunity Enteric Virus Enteric Infection Enteroviral Infection Mammary Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appel, M.J.G., Cooper, B.J., Greisen, H. and Carmichael, L.E., 1978. Status report: Canine viral enteritis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173, 1516.Google Scholar
  2. Bohl, E.H., 1975. Transmissible gastroenteritis. In: Diseases of Swine, Ed. by H.W. Dunne and A.D. Leman, p. 168. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  3. Bohl, E.H., 1979. Diagnosis of diarrhea in pigs due to transmissible gastroenteritis virus or rotavirus. In: Viral Enteritis in Humans and Animals. Ed. By F. Bricout and R. Scherrer. INSERM Colloq. 90, 341.Google Scholar
  4. Bohl, E.H. and Saif, L.H., 1975. Passive immunity in transmissible gastroenteritis of swine: Immunoglobulin characteristics of antibodies in milk after inoculating virus by different routes. Infect. Immun. 11, 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohl, E.H., Gupta, R.K.P., Olquin, M.V.F. and Saif, L.J., 1972. Antibody responses in serum, colostrum and milk of swine after infection or vaccination with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Infect. Immun. 6, 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohl, E.H., Saif, L.J., Gupta, R.K.P. and Frederick, G.T., 1974. Secretory antibodies in milk of swine against transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 45, 337.Google Scholar
  7. Bohl, E.H., Frederick, G.T. and Saif, L.J., 1975. Passive immunity in transmissible gastroenteritis of swine: Intramuscular injection of pregnant swine with a modified live-virus vaccine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36, 267.Google Scholar
  8. Bohl, E.H., Kohler, E.M., Saif, L.J., Cross, R.F., Agnes, A.G. and Theil, K.W., 1978. Rotavirus as a cause of diarrhea in pigs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 172, 613.Google Scholar
  9. Bourne, F.J. and Curtis, Jill, 1973. The transfer of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM from serum to colostrum and milk in the sow.Immunology 24, 157.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, T.T. Jr., Paul, P.S., and Mengeling, W.L., 1980. Response of conventionally raised weanling pigs to experimental infection with a virulent strain of porcine parvovirus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41, 1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carmichael, L.C., Joubert, J.C. and Pollock, R.V.H., 1980. Hemagglutination by canine parvovirus: Serologic studies and diagnostic applications. Am. J. Vet. Res. 40, 784.Google Scholar
  12. Carlson, J.H. and Scott, F.W., 1977. Feline panleukopenia. II. The relationship of intestinal mucosal cell proliferation rates to viral infection and development of lesions. Vet. Pathol. 14, 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis, E.V., Gregg, G.G. and Beckenhauer, W.H., 1970. Infectious feline panleukopenia (Developmental report of a tissue culture origin formalin inactivated vaccine). Vet. Med./Small Anim. Clin. 65, 237.Google Scholar
  14. Curtis, Jill and Bourne, F.J., 1971. Immunoglobulin quantitation in sow serum, colostrum and milk and the serum of young pigs. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 236, 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. De Leeuw, P.W., Ellens, G.J. and Hilbink, F.W., 1979. Rotavirusassociated recurrent diarrhoea in nursing piglets. In: Viral Enteritis in Humans and Animals. Ed. by F. Bricout and R. Scherrer. INSERM Colloq. 90, 349.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, P.A., Newby, T.J., Stokes, C.R., Patel, D. and Bourne, F.J., 1980. Antibody responses of the lactating sow to oral immunisation with Escherichia eoli. Scand. J. Immunol. 11, 419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flewett, T.H. and Woode, G.N., 1978. The rotaviruses. Brief review. Arch. Virol. 57, 1.Google Scholar
  18. Goldblum, R.M., Ahlstedt, S., Carlsson, B., Hanson, L.A., Jodal, V., Lidin-Janson, G. and Sohl-Akerlund, A., 1975. Antibody-forming cells in human colostrum after oral immunisation. Nature 257, 797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haelterman, E.O., 1965. Lactogenic immunity to transmissible gastro- enteritis of swine. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 147, 1661.Google Scholar
  20. Hess, R.G., Bachman, P.A. and Mayr, A., 1978. Attempts to develop an immunoprophylaxis against transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) in pigs. III. Passive immune transfer after oral vaccination with attenuated TGE virus strain B1. Zentralbl Veterinaermed B 25, 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaji T. and Shimizu, Y., 1978. Passive immunisation against transmissible gastroenteritis virus in piglets by ingestion of milk of sows inoculated with attenuated virus. Natl. Inst. Anim. Health Q. ( Tokyo ) 18, 43.Google Scholar
  22. Knowles, N.J., Buckley, L.S. and Pereira, H.G., 1979. Classification of porcine enteroviruses by antigenic analysis and cytopathic effects in tissue culture: Description of 3 new serotypes. Arch. Virol. 62, 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kohler, E.M., 1978. Results of 1976 field trials with oral Escherichia coli vaccination of sows. Vet. Med./Small Anim. Clin. 73, 352.Google Scholar
  24. Kohler, E.M., Cross, R.F. and Bohl, E.H., 1975. Protection against neonatal enteric colibacillosis in pigs suckling orally vaccinated sows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36, 757.Google Scholar
  25. Lipkin, M., 1973. Proliferation and differentiation of gastrointestinal cells. Physiol. Rev. 53, 891.Google Scholar
  26. Michalek, S.M., McGhee, J.R., Mestecky, J., Arnold, R.R. and Bozzo, L., 1976. Ingestion of Streptococcus mutans induces secretory immunoglobulin A and carries immunity. Science 192, 1238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Montgomery, P.C., Cohn, J. and Lally, E.T., 1974. The induction and characteristics of secretory IgA antibodies. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 45, 453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Moon, H.W., 1971. Epithelial cell migration in the alimentary mucosa of the suckling pig. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 137, 151.Google Scholar
  29. Moon, H.W., 1978. Mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diarrhea:A review.J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 172, 443.Google Scholar
  30. Morin, M., Solorzano, R.F., Morehouse, L.G. and Olson, L.D., 1978. The postulated role of feeder swine in the perpetuation of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Can. J. Comp. Med. 42, 379.Google Scholar
  31. Nagura, H., Nakane, D.K. and Brown, W.R., 1978. Breast milk IgA binds to jejunal epithelial in suckling rats. J. Immunol. 120, 1330.Google Scholar
  32. Payne, L.C. and Marsch, C.L., 1962. Gamma globulin absorption in the baby pig: The nonselective absorption of heterologous globulins and factors influencing absorption time. J. Nutr. 76, 151.Google Scholar
  33. Pensaert, M.B., 1979. Immunity in TGE of swine after infection and vaccination. In: Viral Enteritis in Humans and Animals. Ed. by F. Bricout and R. Scherrer. INSERM Colloq. 90, 281.Google Scholar
  34. Porter P. and Allen, W.D., 1972. Classes of immunoglobulins related to immunity in the pig. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 160, 511.Google Scholar
  35. Roux, M.E., McWilliams, M., Phillips-Quagliata, J.M., Weisz-Carrington, P. and Lamm, M.E., 1977. Origin of IgA-secretory plasma cells in the mammary gland. J. Exp. Med. 146, 1311.Google Scholar
  36. Saif, L.J. and Bohl, E.H., 1977. Immunoglobulin classes of antibodies in milk of swine after intranasal exposure to pseudorabies virus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Infect. Immun. 16, 961.Google Scholar
  37. Saif, L.J. and Bohl, E.H., 1979. Role of secretory IgA in passive immunity of swine to enteric viral infections. In: Immunology of Breast Milk. Ed. by P.L. Ogra and D. Dayton, p. 237. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Saif, L.J., Bohl, E.H. and Gupta, R.K.P., 1972. Isolation of porcine immunoglobulins and determinations of the immunoglobulin classes of transmissible gastroenteritis viral antibodies. Infect. Immun. 6, 289.Google Scholar
  39. Singh, K.V. and Bohl, E.H., 1972. The pattern of enteroviral infections in a herd of swine. Can. J. Comp. Med. 36, 243.Google Scholar
  40. Stepanek, J., Mensik, J., Franz, J. and Hornich, M., 1979. Epizootiology, diagnosis and prevention of viral diarrhoea in piglets under intensive husbandry conditions. Proc. 21st World Vet. Congr. ( Moscow ) 6, 43.Google Scholar
  41. Svennerholm, A.M., Holmgren, J., Hanson, L.A., Lindblad, B.S., Qureshi, F. and Rahimtoola, R.J., 1977. Boosting of secretory IgA antibody responses in man by parenteral cholera vaccination. Scand. J. Immunol. 6, 1345.Google Scholar
  42. Tajima, M., 1970. Morphology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. A possible member of coronaviruses. Arch. ges Virus Forsch. 29, 105.Google Scholar
  43. Tamoglia, T.W., 1972. Present status of products available for use against transmissible gastroenteritis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 160 554.Google Scholar
  44. Wenner, H.A., Beran, G.W. and Werder, A.A., 1960. Enteroviruses of swine.II. Studies on the natural history of infection and immunity. Am. J. Vet. Res. 21, 958.Google Scholar
  45. Woode, G.N., Bridger, J.C., Hall, G.A., Jones, J.M. and Jackson, G., 1976. The isolation of reovirus-like agents (rotaviruses) from acute gastroenteritis of piglets. J. Med. Microbiol. 9, 203.Google Scholar
  46. Woods, R.D., 1978. Small plaque variant transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173, 643.Google Scholar
  47. Woods, R.D. and Pedersen, N.C., 1979. Cross-protection studies between feline infectious peritonitis and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis viruses. Vet. Microbiol. 4, 11.Google Scholar
  48. Woods, R.D., Cheville, N.F. and Gallagher J.E., 1980. Lesions in the small intestine of newborn pigs inoculated with porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses. Am. J. Vet. Res. (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. H. Bohl
    • 1
  • Linda J. Saif
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary ScienceOhio Agricultural Research and Development CenterWoosterUSA

Personalised recommendations