Impact of Metals on Ecosystem Function and Productivity

  • M. H. Martin
  • P. J. Coughtrey
Part of the Pollution Monitoring Series book series (PMS, volume 2)


An ecosystem is the assemblage of biotic components, plants, animals and microorganisms, with the abiotic, physico-chemical environment to form a self-contained entity. In his definition, Tansley (1935) emphasized the importance of interactions between the components of the ecosystem; a concept which led to a new impetus in ecological thought and research in attempting to understand the structure and dynamics of such systems.


Heavy Metal Sewage Sludge Small Mammal Terrestrial Ecosystem Litter Decomposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Addison, J. A. and D. Parkinson (1978). Influence of collembolan feeding activities on soil metabolism at a high arctic site. Oikos. 30: 529–38.Google Scholar
  2. Alderman, G. A. (1968). Some aspects of soil-plant-animal relationships. In: Trace Elements. Welsh Soils Discussion Group Report No.9. (P. Jenkins (ed)), pp. 109–19.Google Scholar
  3. Allaway, W. H. (1968). Agronomic controls over the environmental cycling of trace elements. Adv. Agron. 20: 235–74.Google Scholar
  4. Allcroft R. (1951). Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep. Vet. Ree. 63: 583–90.Google Scholar
  5. Andersson, A. (1976). On the determination of ecologically significant fractions of some heavy metals in soils. Swed. J. Agric. Res. 6: 19–25.Google Scholar
  6. Andersson, A. (1977). Heavy metals in Swedish soils: On their retention, distribution and amounts. Swed. J. Agric. Res. 7: 7–20.Google Scholar
  7. Andren, A. W., J. A. C. Fortescue, G. S. Henderson and D. E. Reichle (1973). Environmental monitoring of toxic metals in ecosystems. In: Ecology and Analysis of Trace Contaminants. ORNL-NSF-EATC-1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, pp. 61–119.Google Scholar
  8. Antonovics, J, A. D. Bradshaw and R. G. Turner (1971). Heavy metal tolerance in plants. Adv. Ecol. Res. 7: 1–85.Google Scholar
  9. Arvik, W. H. and R. L. Zimdahl (1974). Barriers to the foliar uptake of lead. J. Environ. Qual. 4: 369–73.Google Scholar
  10. Ausmus, B. S. (1977). Regulation of wood decomposition rates by arthropod and annelid populations. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm). 25: 180–92.Google Scholar
  11. Ausmus, B. S., D. R. Jackson and G. J. Dodson (1977). Assessment of microbial effects on 109Cd movement through soil columns. Pedobiologia. 17: 183–8.Google Scholar
  12. Ausmus, B. S., G. J. Dodson and D. R. Jackson (1978). Behaviour of heavy metals in forest microcosms. III. Effects on litter-soil carbon metabolism. Water Air Soil Pollut. 10: 19–26.Google Scholar
  13. Babich, H. and G. Stotsky (1977). Sensitivity of various bacteria, including actinomycetes, and fungi to cadmium and the influence of on sensitivity. Appi Environ. Microbiol. 33: 681–95.Google Scholar
  14. Balicka, N., T. Wegryzn and E. Czekanowska (1977). Microorganisms as indices of environmental pollution by smelting industry. Acta Microbiol. Pol. 26: 300–8.Google Scholar
  15. Beeby, A. (1978). Interaction of lead and cadmium uptake by the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Porcellionidae). Oecologia, Beri 32: 255–62.Google Scholar
  16. Blaylock, B. G., R. A. Goldstein, J. A. Huckabee, S. Jansen, D. Matti, R.G. Olmstead, M. Slawsley, R. A. Stella and J. P. Witherspoon (1973). Ecology of toxic metals. In: Ecology and Analysis of Trace Contaminants. ORNL-NSF- EATC-1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, pp. 121–60.Google Scholar
  17. Bolton, J. (1975). Liming effects on the toxicity to perennial ryegrass of a sewage sludge amended with Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr. Environ. Pollut. 9: 295–304.Google Scholar
  18. Bolviken, B. and J. Lag (1977). Natural heavy metal poisoning of soils and vegetation: An exploration tool in glaciated terrain. Appi. Earth Sci. 86: 173–80.Google Scholar
  19. Bond, H., B. Lighthart, R. Shimbaku and L. Russell (1976). Some effects of cadmium on forest soil and litter microcosms. Soil Sci. 121: 278–87.Google Scholar
  20. Bordeau, P. and M. Treshow (1978). Ecosystem response to pollution. Ch. 15 in: Principles of Ecotoxicology (G. C. Butler (ed)), John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  21. Borg, K., H. Wanntrop, K. Erne and E. Hanko (1969). Alkyl mercury poisoning in terrestrial Swedish wildlife. Vitrevy. 6: 301–76.Google Scholar
  22. Bradshaw, A. D. (1976). Pollution and evolution. In: Effects of Air Pollutants on Plants (T. A. Mansfield (ed)), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.135–60.Google Scholar
  23. Brooks, R. R. (1972). Geobotany and Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration. Harper and Row, London. 290 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Bull, K. R., R. D. Roberts, M. J. Inskip and G. T. Goodman (1977). Mercury concentrations in soil, grass, earthworms and small mammals near an industrial emission source. Environ. Pollut. 12: 135–40.Google Scholar
  25. Cenzi, G. and G. Morozzi (1977). Evaluation of the toxic effect of Cd2+ and Cd(CN)4 2− ions on the growth of mixed microbial populations of activated sludge. Sci. Total Environ. 7: 131–43.Google Scholar
  26. Cha, J. W. and B. W. Kim (1975). Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil-applied cadmium. Kor. J. Bot. 18: 23–30.Google Scholar
  27. Chamberlain, A. C. (1975). The movement of particles in plant communities. In: Vegetation and the Atmosphere. I. Principles (J. L. Monteith (ed)), Academic Press, London, pp. 155–203.Google Scholar
  28. Chaney, R. L. (1973). Crop and food-chain effects of toxic elements in sludges and effluents. In: Recycling Municipal Sludges and Effluents on Land, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, pp. 129–41.Google Scholar
  29. Chaney, W. R., J. M. Kelly and R. C. Strickland (1978). Influence of cadmium and zinc on carbon dioxide evolution from litter and soil from a Black Oak forest. J. Environ. Qual. 7: 115–19.Google Scholar
  30. Cole, M. A. (1977). Lead inhibition of enzyme synthesis in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33: 262–8.Google Scholar
  31. Cole, M. A. and A. J. Turgeon (1978). Microbial activity in soil and litter underlying bandane and calcium arsenate treated turfgrass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10:18J-6.Google Scholar
  32. Coughtrey, P. J. (1978). Cadmium in terrestrial ecosystems: a case study at Avonmouth, Bristol, England., Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, Bristol.Google Scholar
  33. Coughtrey, P. J. and M. H. Martin (1976). The distribution of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu within the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller. Oecologia, Berl. 23: 315–22.Google Scholar
  34. Coughtrey, P. J. and M. H. Martin (1911a). The uptake of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment. Oecologia, Berl. 27: 65–74.Google Scholar
  35. Coughtrey, P. J. and M. H. Martin (1977). Cadmium tolerance of Holcus lanatus from a site contaminated by aerial fallout. New Phytol. 79: 273–80.Google Scholar
  36. Coughtrey, P. J. and M. H. Martin (1978a). Cadmium uptake in tolerant and non- tolerant populations of Holcus lanatus grown in solution culture. Oikos. 30: 555–60.Google Scholar
  37. Coughtrey, P. J. and M. H. Martin (19786). Tolerance of Holcus lanatus to lead, zinc and cadmium in factorial combination. New Phytol. 81: 147–54.Google Scholar
  38. Coughtrey, P. J., M. H. Martin and E. W. Young (1977). The woodlouse Oniscus asellus as a monitor of environmental cadmium levels. Chemosphere. 6: 827–32.Google Scholar
  39. Coughtrey, P. J., M. H. Martin and S. W. Shales (1978). Preliminary observations on cadmium tolerance in Holcus lanatus L. from soils artificially contaminated with heavy metals. Chemosphere. 7: 193–8.Google Scholar
  40. Coughtrey, P. J., C. H. Jones, M. H. Martin and S. W. Shales (1979). Litter accumulation in woodlands contamined by Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu. Oecologia, Berl. 39: 51–60.Google Scholar
  41. Coughtrey, P. J., M. H. Martin, J. Chard and S. W. Shales (1980a). Microorganisms and metal retention in the woodlouse Oniscus asellus. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12: 23–7.Google Scholar
  42. Coughtrey, P. J, M. H. Martin and S. W. Shales (1980a). A case study of the effects of airborne cadmium contamination on a terrestrial ecosystem. 2. Invertebrates and micro-organisms. In: Case Studies in Ecotoxicology. Surrey University Press, Guildford (in press).Google Scholar
  43. Cox, R. M. and T. C. Hutchinson (1979). Metal co-tolerances in the grass Deschampsia caespitosa. Nature, Lond. 279: 231–3.Google Scholar
  44. Craig, R. B. and R. L. Rudd (1974). The ecosystem approach to toxic chemicals in the biosphere. In: Survival in Toxic Environments(M. A. Q. Khan and J. P. Bederka (eds)). Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  45. Cromack, K., Jr, P. Sollins, R. L. Todd, D. A. Crossley, Jr, W. M. Fender, R. Fogel and A. W. Todd (1977). Soil microorganism-arthropod interactions: Fungi as a major calcium and sodium source. Chapter 9 in: The Role of Arthropods in Forest Ecosystems(W.J. Mattson (ed)), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 246–52.Google Scholar
  46. Curnow, R. D., W. A. Tolin and D. W. Lynch (1977). Ecological and land use relationships of toxic metals in Ohio’s terrestrial vertebrate fauna. In: Biological Implications of Metals in the Environment, Proceedings 15th Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ERDA- TIC-CONF-No. 750929. pp.578–94.Google Scholar
  47. De Leval, J. and J. De Monty (1972). Evolution de la microflore du sol en fonction de sa concentration en Zn et en Pb. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. (1972): 491–504.Google Scholar
  48. Denaeyer-De Smet, S. (1974). Premier aperçu de la distribution du cadmium dans divers écosystèmes terrestres non pollués et pollués. Oecol. Plant. 9: 169–82.Google Scholar
  49. Denaeyer-De Smet, S. and P. Duvigneaud (1974). Accumulation de métaux lourdes dans divers écosystèmes terrestres pollués par des rétombées d’origine industrielle. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 107: 147–56.Google Scholar
  50. Dick, A. T. and L. B. Bull (1945). Some preliminary observations on the effect of molybdenum on copper metabolism in herbivorous animals. Aust. Vet. J. 21: 70–2.Google Scholar
  51. Donovan, P. P., D. T. Feeley and P. P. Canavan (1969). Lead contamination of mining areas in W. Ireland. II. Survey of animals, pastures, foods and waters. J. Sci. Food Agrie. 20: 43–5.Google Scholar
  52. Dorn, C. R., J. O. Pierce, G. R. Chase and P. E. Phillips (1975). Environmental contamination by lead, cadmium, zinc and copper in a new lead producing area. Environ. Res. 9: 159–72.Google Scholar
  53. Doyle, J. J., R. T. Marshall and W. H. Pfander (1975). Effects of cadmium on growth and uptake of cadmium by microorganisms. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 562–4.Google Scholar
  54. Draggan, S. (1976). The microcosm as a tool for estimation of environmental transport of toxic materials. Int. J. Environ. Studies. 10: 65–70.Google Scholar
  55. Ernst, W. (1974). Schwermetallvegetation der Erde. Fischer-Verlag, Stuttgart, 194 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Ernst, W. (1976). Physiological and biochemical aspects of metal tolerance. In: Effects of Air Pollutants on Plants(T. A. Mansfield (ed)), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 115–33.Google Scholar
  57. Ferguson, W. S., A. H. Lewis and S. J. Watson (1940). The teart pastures of Somerset. Jeallots Hill Research Station Bulletin 1, Kynoch Press, Birmingham.Google Scholar
  58. Florkowski, T., S. Piorek and M. M. A. Sassen (1979). An attempt to determine the tissue concentration of Quercus rohur L. and Pinus sylvestris L. foliage by particulates from zinc and lead smelters. Environ. Pollut. 18: 97–106.Google Scholar
  59. Garten, C. T., Jr and R. C. Dahlman (1978). Plutonium in biota from an East Tennessee floodplain forest. Health Phys. 34: 705–12.Google Scholar
  60. Garten, C. T., Jr, R. H. Gardner and R. C. Dahlman (1978). A compartment model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Health Phys. 34: 611–19.Google Scholar
  61. Gemmel, R. P. (1978). Colonisation of Industrial Wasteland. Edward Arnold, London, 75 pp.Google Scholar
  62. Giles, F. E., S. G. Middleton and J. G. Grau (1973). Evidence for the accumulation of atmospheric lead by insects in areas of high traffic density. Environ. Entomol. 2: 299–300.Google Scholar
  63. Gingell, S. M., R. Campbell and M. H. Martin (1976). The effect of zinc, lead and cadmium pollution on the leaf surface microflora. Environ. Pollut. 11: 25–37.Google Scholar
  64. Gish, C. D. and R. E. Christiensen (1973). Cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in earthworms from roadside soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7: 1060–2.Google Scholar
  65. Gracey, J. F. and J. R. Todd (1960). Chronic copper poisoning in sheep following the use of copper sulphate as a molluscicide. Brit. Vet. J. 116: 405–8.Google Scholar
  66. Griffiths, J. J. (1919). Influence of mines upon land and livestock in Cardiganshire. J. Agrie. Sci. 9: 366–95.Google Scholar
  67. Griffiths, J. R. and G. A. Wadsworth (1980). Heavy metal pollution of farms near an industrial complex. In: Inorganic Pollution and Agriculture, Paper 6, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Reference Book 326, HMSO, London, pp. 70–6.Google Scholar
  68. Gullino, M. and N. Fiusello (1976). Azione del piombo sui funghi. Mic. Ital. 2: 27–32.Google Scholar
  69. Haghiri, F. (1974). Plant uptake of cadmium as influenced by cation exchange capacity, organic matter, zinc and soil temperature. J. Environ. Qual. 3:180–2.Google Scholar
  70. Hallsworth, E. G., S. B. Wilson and E. A. Greenwood (1960). Copper and cobalt in nitrogen fixation. Nature, Lond. 187: 79–80.Google Scholar
  71. Haney, A. and R. L. Lipsey (1973). Accumulation and effects of methyl mercury hydroxide in a terrestrial food chain under laboratory conditions. Environ. Pollut. 5: 305–16.Google Scholar
  72. Hartman, L. M. (1974). A preliminary report: Fungal flora of the soil as conditioned by varying concentrations of heavy metals. Am. J. Bot. 61(Abstract Suppl.): 23.Google Scholar
  73. Healey, W. B. (1968). Ingestion of soil by dairy cattle. N.Z.J. Agric. Res. 11:487–99.Google Scholar
  74. Healey, W. B. (1974). Ingested soil as a source of elements to grazing animals. In: Trace Element Metabolism in Animals (W. G. Hoekstra, J. W. Suttie, H. E. Ganther and W. Mertz (eds)), University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 448–9.Google Scholar
  75. Heinrichs, H. and R. Mayer (1977). Distribution and cycling of major and trace elements in two central European forest ecosystems. J. Environ. Qual. 6: 402–7.Google Scholar
  76. Henwood, J. (1857). Notice of the copper turf of Merioneth. Edinburgh New Phil. J. 3: 61–3.Google Scholar
  77. Hogl, O. (1975). Molybdan als toxischer faktor in einem Schweizer Alpental. Mitt. Gebeite Lebensm. Hyg. 66: 485–95.Google Scholar
  78. Holdgate, M. W. (1979). A Perspective of Environmental Pollution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 278 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Huckabee, J. W. and B. G. Blaylock (1973). The transfer of mercury and cadmium from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. In: Metal Ions in Biological Systems— Studies of Some Biochemical and Environmental Problems (S. K. Dhar (ed)), Plenum Press, London, pp. 125–60.Google Scholar
  80. Hutchinson, T. C. and L. M. Whitby (1977). The effects of acid rainfall and heavy metal particulates on a boreal forest ecosystem near the Sudbury smelting region of Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut. 7: 421–38.Google Scholar
  81. Imai, K., T. Sugio, T. Tsuchika and T. Btano(1975). Effects of heavy metal ions on the growth and iron oxidising activity of Thiobacillusferroxidans. Agric. Biol. Chem. 7: 1349–54.Google Scholar
  82. Inman, J. C. and G. R. Parker (1978). Decomposition and heavy metal dynamics of forest litter in Northwestern Indiana. Environ. Pollut. 17: 39–51.Google Scholar
  83. Ireland, M. P. (1975). Metal content of Dendrobaenan rubida(Oligochaeta) in a base metal mining area. Oikos. 26: 74–9.Google Scholar
  84. Ireland, M. P. (1977). Lead retention in toads Xenopus laevis fed increasing levels of lead-contaminated earthworms. Environ. Pollut. 12: 85–92.Google Scholar
  85. Jackson, D. R. W. J Selvidgeand B. S. Ausmus(1978a). Behaviour of heavy metals in forest microcosms. 1. Transport and distribution among components. Water Air Soil Pollut. 10: 3–11.Google Scholar
  86. Jackson, D. R., W. J. Selvidge and B. S. Ausmus (1978b). Behaviour of heavy metals in forest microcosms. 2. Effects on nutrient cycling processes. Water Air Soil Pollut. 10: 13–18.Google Scholar
  87. Jarvis, S. C., L. H. P. Jones and M. J. Hopper (1976). Cadmium uptake from solution by plants and its transport from roots to shoots. Plant Soil. 44: 179–91.Google Scholar
  88. John, M. K. and C. van Laerhoven (1972). Lead uptake by lettuce and oats as affected by lime, nitrogen and sources of lead. J. Environ. Qual. 1: 169–71.Google Scholar
  89. Johnson, M. S. an. D. Roberts (1978). Distribution of lead, zinc and cadmium in small mammals from polluted environments. Oikos. 30: 153–9.Google Scholar
  90. Joose, E. N. G. and J. B. Buker (1979). Uptake and excretion of lead by litter- dwelling Collembola. Environ. Pollut. 18: 235–40.Google Scholar
  91. Jordan, M. J. (1975). Effect of zinc smelter emissions and fire on chestnut-oak woodlands. Ecology. 56: 78–91.Google Scholar
  92. Jordan, M. J. and M. P. Lechavalier (1975). Effects of zinc smelter emissions on forest soil microflora. Can. J. Microbiol. 21: 1855–65.Google Scholar
  93. Kelly, J. M. and G. S. Henderson (1978). Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on deciduous litter decomposition. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42: 972–6.Google Scholar
  94. Kimura, Y. and V. L. Miller (1964). The degradation of organomercury fungicides in soil. Agric. Food Chem. 13: 253–7.Google Scholar
  95. Lagerwerff, J. V. (1967). Heavy metal contamination of soils. In: Agriculture and the Quality of Our Environment(N.C. Brady (ed)), American Association of Advance Science Publishers, pp. 343–64.Google Scholar
  96. Lang, G. E. (1978). Detrital dynamics in a mature oak forest: Hutchinson Memorial Forest, New Jersey. Ecology. 59: 580–95.Google Scholar
  97. Lawrey, J. D. (1977). Soil fungal populations and soil respiration in habitats variously influenced by coal strip-mining. Environ. Pollut. 14: 195–205.Google Scholar
  98. Lawrey, J. D. (1978). Trace metal dynamics in decomposing leaf litter in habitats variously influenced by coal strip-mining. Can. J. Bot. 56: 953–62.Google Scholar
  99. Letunova, S. V. (1970). Geochemical ecology of soil microorganisms. In: Trace Element Metabolism in Animals (C. F. Mills (ed)), E. and S. Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp.432–7.Google Scholar
  100. Lipman, C. B. and P. S. Burgess (1914). The eifect of copper, zinc, iron and lead salts on ammonification and nitrification in soils. Univ. Calif. Publ. Agric. Sci. 1: 127–39.Google Scholar
  101. Little, P. (1973). A study of heavy metal contamination of leaf surfaces. Environ. Pollut. 5: 159–72.Google Scholar
  102. Little, P. (1977). Deposition of 2.75. 5.0 and 8.5μm particles to plant and soil surfaces. Environ. Pollut. 12: 293–305.Google Scholar
  103. Little, P. and R. D. Wiffen (1977). Emission and deposition of petrol engine exhaust Pb. 1. Deposition of exhaust Pb to plant and soil surfaces. Atmos. Environ. 11: 437–47.Google Scholar
  104. Lu, P. Y., R. L. Metcalf. R. Furman, R. Vogel and J. Hasset (1975). Model ecosystem studies of lead and cadmium and of urban sewage sludge containing these elements. J. Environ. Qual. 4, 505–9.Google Scholar
  105. MacLean. D. A. and R. W. Wien (1978). Litter production and forest floor nutrient dynamics in pine and hardwood stands of New Brunswick, Canada. Holarctic Ecol. 1: 1–15.Google Scholar
  106. Maga, J. A. and F. B. Hodges (1972). A joint study on lead contamination relative to horses deaths in southern Solano County, State of California, Air Resources Board, California, USA.Google Scholar
  107. Mahler, R. J., F. T. Bingham and A. L. Page (1978). Cadmium-enriched sewage sludge application to acid and calcareous soils: Effect on yield and cadmium uptake by lettuce and chard. J. Environ. Qual. 7: 274–80.Google Scholar
  108. Malaise, F., J. Gregoire, R. S. Morrison, R. R. Brooks and R. D. Reeves (1979). Copper and cobalt in vegetation of Fungurume, Shaba Provice, Zaire. Oikos. 33: 472–8.Google Scholar
  109. Malaney, G. W., W. D. Sheets and R. Quillin (1959). Toxic effects of metallic ions on sewage microorganisms. Sewage Ind. Wastes. 31: 1309–15.Google Scholar
  110. Martin, M. H. and P. J. Coughtrey (1975). Preliminary observations on the levels of cadmium in a contaminated environment. Chemosphere. 4: 155–60.Google Scholar
  111. Martin, M. H. and P. J. Coughtrey (1976). Comparisons between the levels of lead, zinc and cadmium within a contaminated environment. Chemosphere. 5: 15–20.Google Scholar
  112. Martin, M. H., P. J. Coughtrey and E. W. Young (1976). Observations on the availability of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu in woodland litter and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the woodlouse Oniscus asellus. Chemosphere. 5: 313–18.Google Scholar
  113. Martin, M. H., P. J. Coughtrey, S. W. Shales and P. Little (1980). Aspects of airborne cadmium contamination of soils and natural vegetation. In: Inorganic Pollution and Agriculture, Paper 5, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Reference Book 326, HMSO, London, pp. 55–69.Google Scholar
  114. May, R. M. (1976). Patterns in multispecies communities. In: Theoretical Ecology Principles and Applications (R. M. Ray (ed)), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 142–62.Google Scholar
  115. May, R. M. (1978). Factors controlling the stability and breakdown of ecosystems. In: The Breakdown and Restoration of Ecosystems (M. W. Holdgate and M.J. Woodman (eds)), Plenum Press, London, pp. 11–25.Google Scholar
  116. Mendelssohn, H. (1962). Mass destruction ofbird lifeowingto secondary poisoning from insecticides and rodenticides. Atlantic Nat. 17: 247–8.Google Scholar
  117. Mendelssohn, H. (1972). Effect of toxic chemicals on bird life. The impact of pesticides on bird life in Israel. Int. Council Bird Preservation XI, Bulletin 1972, pp.75–104.Google Scholar
  118. Munshower, F F. (1972). Cadmium compartmentalisation and cycling in a grassland ecosystem in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Montana.Google Scholar
  119. Munshower, F. F. (1977). Cadmium accumulation in plants and animals of polluted and non-polluted grasslands. J. Environ. Qual. 6: 411–13.Google Scholar
  120. Nielson, R. L.(1951). Effect of soil minerals on earthworms. N.Z.J. Agric. 83:433–5.Google Scholar
  121. Odum, E. P. (1975). Diversity as a function of energy flow. In: Unifying Concepts in Ecology(W. H Van Dobben and R. H. Lowe Monnell (eds)), Junk, The Hague, pp. 11–14.Google Scholar
  122. Page, A. L., F T. Bingham and C. Nelson (1972). Cadmium absorption and growth of various plant species as influenced by solution cadmium concentration. J. Environ. Qual. 1: 288–91.Google Scholar
  123. Parker, G. R., W. W. Meeand J. M. Kelly (1978). Metal distributions in forested ecosystems in urban and rural Northwestern Indiana. J. Environ. Qual. 7: 337–42.Google Scholar
  124. Peterson, P. J. (1971). Unusual accumulations of elements by plants and animals. Sci. Prog. Oxford. 59 505–26.Google Scholar
  125. Pettersson, O. (1976). Heavy-metal ion uptake by plants from chemical solutions with metal ion, plant species and growth period variations. Plant Soil. 45: 445–9.Google Scholar
  126. Pettersson, O. (1977). Differences in cadmium uptake between plant species and cultivars. Swed. J. Agric. Res. 7: 214.Google Scholar
  127. Pinkerton, A. and J. R. Simpson (1977). Root growth and heavy metal uptake by three graminaceous plants in differentially limed layers of an acid, minespoil- contaminated soil. Environ. Pollut. 14: 159–68.Google Scholar
  128. Premi, P. R. and A. H. Cornfield (1969). Effects of Cu, Zn and Cr on immobilisation and subsequent remobilisation of nitrogen during incubation of soil treated with sucrose. Geoderma. 3: 233–7.Google Scholar
  129. Price, P. W., B. J. Rathckeand D. A. Gentry (1974). Lead in terrestrial arthropods: Evidence for biological concentration. Environ. Entomol. 3: 370–2.Google Scholar
  130. Rascio, N. (1977). Metal accumulation by some plants growing on zinc mine deposits. Oikos. 29: 250–3.Google Scholar
  131. Regier, H. A. and E. B. Cowell (1972). Applications of the ecosystem theory, succession, diversity, stress and conservation. Biol. Cons. 4: 83–8.Google Scholar
  132. Roberts, R. and M. S. Johnson (1978). Dispersal of heavy metals from abandoned mine workings and their transference through terrestrial food chains. Environ. Pollut. 16: 293–310.Google Scholar
  133. Roberts, T. M. and G. T. Goodman (1974). The persistence of heavy metals in soils and natural vegetation following closure of a smelter. In: Trace Substances in Environmental Health VII(D. D. Hemphill (ed)), University of Missouri, Columbia, pp. 105–16.Google Scholar
  134. Roberts, K. R., W. J. Miller, P. E. Stake, R. P. Gentry and M. W. Neathery (1974). Effects of high dietary Cd on Zn absorption and metabolism in calves fed for comparable nitrogen balances. Proc. Soc. Expl. Biol. Med. 144: 906–8.Google Scholar
  135. Roberts, R. D., Johnson. M. S. and M. Hutton (1978). Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines. Environ. Pollut. 15: 61–9.Google Scholar
  136. Ruhling, A. and G. Tyler (1973). Heavy metal pollution and decomposition of spruce needle litter. Oikos. 24: 402–16.Google Scholar
  137. Rune, O. (1953). Plant life on Serpentines and related rocks in the north of Sweden. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica. 31: 1–139.Google Scholar
  138. Rutherford, G. K. and C. R. Bray (1979). Extent and distribution of soil heavy metal contamination near a nickel smelter at Coniston, Ontario. J. Environ. Qual. 8: 219–22.Google Scholar
  139. Sharma, R. P. and J. L. Shupe(1977a). Trace metals in ecosystems Relationships of the residues of Cu, Mo, Se and Zn in animal tissues to those in vegetation and soil in the surrounding environment. In: Biological Implications of Metals in the Environment. Proceedings 15th Annual Hanford Life Sci. Symp., Oak Ridge National Lab., ERDA-TIC-CONF-no. 750929, Tennessee, pp. 595–609.Google Scholar
  140. Sharma, R. P. and J. L Shupe (1977b). Lead, cadmium and arsenic residues in animal tissues in relation to their surrounding habitat. Sci. Total Environ. 7: 53–62.Google Scholar
  141. Simon, E. (1977). Cadmium tolerance in populations of Agrostis tenuis and Festuca ovina. Nature, Lond. 265: 328–30.Google Scholar
  142. Smith, W. H. (1976). Lead contamination of the roadside ecosystem. J. Air Pollut. Control. Assoc. 26: 753–66.Google Scholar
  143. Sorteberg, A. (1974). The effect of some heavy metals in oats in a pot experiment with three different soil types. J. Sci. Agric. Soc. Finland. 46: 277–88.Google Scholar
  144. Southwood, T. R. E. (1976). Bionomic strategies and population parameters. In: Theoretical Ecology(R.M. May (ed)), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 26–48.Google Scholar
  145. Spalding, B. P. (1979). Effects of divalent metal chlorides on respiration and extractable enzymatic activities of Douglas Fir needle litter. J. Environ. Qual. 8: 105–9.Google Scholar
  146. Stickel, W. H. (1975). Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Ecological Toxicological Research(A. D. Mclntyre and C. F. Mills (eds)), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 25–74.Google Scholar
  147. Stokinger, H. E. (1963). Effects of air pollutants on wildlife. Conn. Med. 27:487–92.Google Scholar
  148. Strojan, C. L. (1978a). Forest leaf litter decomposition in the vicinity of a zinc smelter. Oecologia, Berl. 32: 203–12.Google Scholar
  149. Strojan, C. L. (1978b). The impact of zinc smelter emissions on forest litter arthropods. Oikos. 31: 41–6.Google Scholar
  150. Tabatabai, M. A. (1977). Effects of trace elements on urease activity in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9: 9–13.Google Scholar
  151. Tansley, A. G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology. 16: 284–307.Google Scholar
  152. Tatsuyama, K., H. Egawa, H. Yamamoto and H. Senmaru (1975a). Cadmium resistant microorganisms in the soil polluted by the metals. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan. 16: 68–78.Google Scholar
  153. Tatsuyama, K., H. Egawa, H. Yamamoto and H. Senmaru (1975b). Tolerance of cadmium resistant microorganisms to the other metals. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan. 16: 79–85.Google Scholar
  154. Timoney, J. F., J. Port, J. Giles and J. Spanier (1978). Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance in the bacterial flora of sediments of New York Bight. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36: 465–72.Google Scholar
  155. Tonomura, K., K. Maeda, F. Futai, T. Nakagami and M. Yamada (1968). Stimulative vaporisation of phenyl mercuric acetate by mercury resistant bacteria. Nature, Lond. 217: 644–6.Google Scholar
  156. Tyler, G. (1970). Blyets fordelning i ett sydvenskt barrskogsekosystem. Grund-fobattring. 23: 45–9.Google Scholar
  157. Tyler, G. (1972). Heavy metals pollute nature, may reduce productivity. Ambio. 1: 52–9.Google Scholar
  158. Tyler, G. (1975a). Effects of heavy metal pollution on decomposition in forest soils. Introductory, investigations. National Swedish Environment Protection Board, Solna, 21 pp.Google Scholar
  159. Tyler, G. (1915b). Effects of heavy metal pollution on decomposition in forest soils. Decomposition rate, mineralisation of nitrogen and phosphorus, soil enzymatic activity. National Swedish Environment Protection Board, Solna, 47 pp.Google Scholar
  160. Tyler, G. (1975c). Heavy metal pollution and mineralisation of nitrogen in forest soils. Nature, Lond. 255: 701–2.Google Scholar
  161. Tyler, G. (1976). Heavy metal pollution, phosphatase activity and mineralisation of organic phosphorus in forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8: 327–32.Google Scholar
  162. Tyler, G. (1978). Leaching rates of heavy metal ions in forest soil. Water Air Soil Pollut. 9: 137–48.Google Scholar
  163. Tyler, G., N. Mornsjo and B. Nilsson (1974). Effects of cadmium, lead and sodium salts on nitrification in mull soil. Plant Soil. 40: 237–42.Google Scholar
  164. Uchida, Y., A. Saito. H. Kaziwara and N. Enomoto (1973). Studies on cadmium resistant microorganisms. 1. Isolation of cadmium resistant bacteria and the uptake of cadmium by the organisms. Agric. Bull. Saga Univ. 35: 15–24.Google Scholar
  165. van Hook, R. I. (1974). Cadmium, lead and zinc distributions between earthworms and soils: Potentials for biological accumulation. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12: 509–12.Google Scholar
  166. van Hook, R. I. and A. J. Yates (1973). Transient behaviour of cadmium in a grassland arthropod foodchain. Environ. Res. 9: 76–83.Google Scholar
  167. van Hook, R. I., B. G. Blaylock, E. A. Bondietti, C. W. Francis, J. W. Huckabee, D.E. Reichle, F.H. Sweeton and J. P. Witherspoon (1976). Radioisotope techniques in the delineation of the environmental behaviour of cadmium. Environ. Q uj. Saf. 5: 166–82.Google Scholar
  168. van Hook, R. I., W. F. Harris and G. S. Henderson (1977). Cd, Pb and Zn distributions and cycling in a mixed deciduous woodland. Ambio. 6: 281–6.Google Scholar
  169. van Hook, R. I., D. R. Jackson and A. D. Watson (1978). Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu distributions and effects in forested watersheds. In: Cadmium 77. Edited Proceedings of the 1st International cadmium Conference, San Francisco, Metal Bulletins Ltd, London, pp. 140–9.Google Scholar
  170. van Hook, R. I., D. W. Johnson and B. P. Spalding (1980). Zinc distribution and cycling in forest ecosystems. Chapter 12 in: Zinc in the Environment. Part I. Ecological Cycling(J. O. Nriagu (ed)), John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, pp.419–37.Google Scholar
  171. van Rhee, J. A. (1975). Copper contamination effects on earthworms by disposal of pig wastes in pastures. In: Progress in Soil Zoology (J. Vanek (ed)), Junk, The Hague, pp.451–7.Google Scholar
  172. Varanka, M. W., Z. M. Zablocki and T. D. Hinesley (1976). The effect of digested sludge on soil biological activity. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48: 1728–40.Google Scholar
  173. Varma, M. M., W. A. Thomas and C. Prasad (1976). Resistance to inorganic salts and antibiotics among sewage-borne Enterobacteriaceae and Achromo- bacteriaceae. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 41: 347–9.Google Scholar
  174. Vetter, V. H. and R. Mahlop (1971). Untersuchungen über Blei-Zink-und Fluorimmissionen und dadurch verursachte Schaden an Pflanzen und Tieren. Landwirtsch. Forsch. 24: 294–315.Google Scholar
  175. Watson, A. P. (1975). Trace element impact on forest floor litter in the new lead belt region of southeastern Missouri. In: Trace Elements in Environmental Health- IX(D.D. Hemphill (ed)). University of Missouri, Columbia, pp. 227–36.Google Scholar
  176. Webb, D. P. (1977). Regulation of deciduous forest litter decomposition by soil arthropod faeces. Chapter 7 in: Fhe Role of Arthropods in Forest Ecosystems(W. J. Mattson (ed)), Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  177. White, D. H., J. R. Bean and J. R. Longcore (1977). Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic and selenium in starlings 1973. Pestic. Monit. J. 11: 35–9.Google Scholar
  178. Wieser, W., R. Dallinger and G. Busch (1977). The flow of copper through a terrestrial food chain. 2. Factors influencing the copper content of isopods. Oecologia, Berl. 30: 265–72.Google Scholar
  179. Wild, H. (1968). Geobotanical anomalies in Rhodesia. 1. The vegetation of copper bearing soils. Kirkia. 7: 1–71.Google Scholar
  180. Wild, H. (1974a). Geochemical anomalies in Rhodesia. 4. The vegetation of arsenical soils. Kirkia. 9: 243–64.Google Scholar
  181. Wild, H. (1974b). Arsenic tolerant plant species established on arsenical mine dumps in Rhodesia. Kirkia. 9: 265–78.Google Scholar
  182. Williams, S.T., T. Neillyand E. M. H. Wellington (1977). The decomposition of vegetation growing on metal mine waste. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9: 271–5.Google Scholar
  183. Williamson, P. (1980). Variables affecting body burdens of lead, zinc and cadmium in a roadside population of the snail Cepaea hortensis Miiller. Oecologia, Berl. 44: 213–20.Google Scholar
  184. Williamson, P. and P. R. Evans (1972). Lead: Levels in roadside invertebrates and small mammals. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8: 280–8.Google Scholar
  185. Willoughby, R. A., E. Macdonald, B. J. Mherry and G. Brown (1972). The interaction of toxic amounts of lead and zinc fed to young growing horses. Vet. Record. 1972: 382–3.Google Scholar
  186. Wilson, D. O. (1977). Nitrification in three soils amended with zinc sulphate. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9: 277–80.Google Scholar
  187. Woodwell, G. M. (1970). Effects of pollution on the structure and physiology of ecosystems. Science. 168: 429–33.Google Scholar
  188. Yost, K. J. (1978). Some aspects of the environmental flow of cadmium in the United States. In: Cadmium 77. Edited Proceedings of the 1st International Cadmium Conference, San Francisco, Metal Bulletins Ltd, London, pp.147–66.Google Scholar
  189. Yost, K. J. (1979). Some aspects of the environmental flow of cadmium in the United States. In Cadmium Toxicity (J. H. Mennear (ed)), Dekker Inc, New York, pp. 181–206.Google Scholar
  190. Zhulidov A. V. and V. M. Emets (1979). Accumulation of lead in the bodies of beetles in contaminated environments associated with automobile exhausts. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR. 6: 1515–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Applied Science Publishers Ltd 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. Martin
    • 1
  • P. J. Coughtrey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of BristolUK

Personalised recommendations