Three Dimensional Nucleation

  • Joseph L. Katz
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (ASIC, volume 87)


The realization that phase changes, i.e. condensation of a vapor to its liquid or solid phase, boiling of a liquid, melting of a solid does not necessarily occur at equilibrium was published as early as 1724 by G. FAHRENHEIT.1 J. T. LOWITZ in 1785 showed that acetic acid crystals are selective nuclei for the crystalization of acetic acid.1 But it was not until 1926, when a paper by VOLMER and WEBER2 was published, that a predictive equation for the rate of nucleation became available. Advances quickly followed. FARKAS,3 based on a suggestion by SZILLARD, provided a kinetic scheme for calculating the unknown constant. BECKER and DÖRING4 used this scheme but obtained the backward rate (this terminology will be explained later) from the Kelvin equation. ZELDOVICH suggested a continuum version. Many others have also made significant contributions. A very good review of much of the early history can be found in Volmer’s book. While this book is in some places difficult to read it is nevertheless highly recommended. Other sources are the three volume set edited by ZETTLEMOYER6,7,8 and the book by ABRAHAM.9


Nickel Crystallization Benzene Recombination Helium 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cited by VOLMER M., in Kinetic der Phasenbildung, T. Steinkopff, Dresden and Leipzig, 1939. An English translation is available from the National Technical and Information Service, Cite: ATI No 81935 (F-TS-7068-RE).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Volmer M. and Weber A., Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 119 (1926) 277.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Farkas L., Z. Phys. Chem. A125 (1927) 236.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Becker R. and Doring W., Ann. Phys. 24 (1935) 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zeldovich J., Acta. Physicochim. U.S.S.R., 18 (1943) 1.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nucleation, A.C. Zettlemozer, ed. Dekker, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 7, 1977.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 10, 1979.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abraham F.F., Homogeneous Nucleation Theory, Academic Press, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Katz J.L., Saltsburg H. and Reiss H., J. Coll. Inter. Sci. 21 (1966) 560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katz J.L. and Blander M., J. Coll. Inter. Sci. 42 (1973) 496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Katz J.L. and Wiedersich H., J. Coll. Inter. Sci. 61 (1977) 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Katz J.L. and Spalpen F.,Phil. Mag. B37 (1978) 137.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Katz J.L. and Donohue M.D., Adv. Chem. Phys. 40 (1979) 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wiedersich H. and Katz J.L., in ref. 8 p. 33.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Donohue M.D. And Katz J.L., J. Coll. Inter. Sci. (to appear).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen E.R., J. Stat. Phys. 2 (1970) 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Katz J.L. and Wiedersich H., J. Chem Phys. 55 (1971) 1414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katz J.L. and Wiedersich H.,J. Nucl. Materials 46 (1973) 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wiedersich H. and Katz J.L., Proceedings of the Conference on Defects and Defect Clusters in bcc Metals and their Alloys. AIME Nuclear Metallurgy Series 18(1973)530.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wiedersich H., Burton J.J. and Katz J.L., J. Nucl. Materials 51 (1974) 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cargill G.S. III, in Solid State Physics, H. Ehrenreich, F. Seitz, and D. Turnbull, ed., Academic Press, New York, 1975, Vol. 30, p. 227.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Finney J.L., Proc. R. Soc. 319A (1970) 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bernal J.D., Proc. R. Soc. 280A (1964) 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph L. Katz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations