The Structure of Clean Surfaces

  • E. Bauer
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (ASIC, volume 87)


Diffraction has been and still is the major means for the determination of the structure of a surface. Waves which can be used for this purpose must fulfill three requirements: (i) their wavelength must be smaller than the distanced between neighboring atoms; (ii) they must be sufficiently coherent and (iii) they must strongly emphasize the surface relative to the bulk. The first two conditions must also be fulfilled for the structure analysis of the bulk. The condition λmax ≲ d ≃ 2.5 − 5Å means for X-rays energies from 4keV on upwards, for particles energies from E = (h/λ)2/2m on upwards. For electrons E ≳ 15eV (minus mean inner potential), for neutrons and H atoms E ≳ 10meV,for He atoms E < 2meV. These conditions can be easily fulfilled as well as the coherency condition, which requires a sufficiently small monochromatic source.


Atomic Beam Clean Surface Topmost Layer Double Scattering Unit Mesh 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Bauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisches InstitutTechnische Universität ClausthalClausthal-ZellerfeldFederal Republic of Germany

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