Determination of Nonylphenols and Nonylphenolethoxylates in Secondary Sewage Effluents

  • C. Schaffner
  • E. Stephanou
  • W. Giger

Summary

Nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates with one, two, and three oxyethylene groups were identified in effluents from activated sludge sewage treatment plants. A steam-distillation and solvent-extraction procedure was used to isolate the organic compounds. The complex mixtures of isomers were analyzed by glass capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of 100 to 300 µg of total 4-nonylphenol derivatives per liter effluent were determined in the effluents of three out of six activated sludge treatment plants. Nonionic detergents of the nonylphenolethoxylate type are considered to be precursor chemicals of these refractory compounds.

Keywords

Toxicity Phenol Sludge Sodium Chloride Sewage 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Giger, W. and Roberts, P.V., In “Water Pollution Microbiology”, Vol. 2, Mitchell, R., ed., Wiley, New York, 1978, pp. 135–175.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Van Hall, C.E., ASTM Special Techn. Publ. 686 (1979).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Veith, G.D. and Kiwus, L.M., Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 17, 631–636 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Peters, T.L., Anal. Chem., 52, 211–213 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Grob, K. and Grob, G., J. Chromatogr., 213, 211–221 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Giger, W., Stephanou, E. and Schaffner, C., Chemosphere, 10, 1981, in press.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Rudling, L. and Solyolm, P., Water Research, 8, 115–119 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Baggi, G., Beretta, L., Galli, E., Scolastico, C. and Freccani, V., “The Oil Industry and Microbial Ecosystems”, K.W.A. Chater and H.J. Somerville, eds., Heydon, London, 1978, pp. 129–136.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Geiser, R., Ph.D. thesis, Nr. 6678, ETH Zurich, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Jones, P. and Nickless, G., J. Chromatogr., 156, 99–110 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Reinhard, M., private communication, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Sheldon, L.S. and Hites, R.A., Sci. Total Environ., 11, 279–286 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Sheldon, L.S. and Hites, R.A., Environ. Sci. Technol., 12, 1188–1194 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    McLeese, D.W., Zitko, V., Sergeant, D.B. and Metcalfe, C.D., Chemosphere, 10, 723–730 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Schaffner
    • 1
  • E. Stephanou
    • 1
  • W. Giger
    • 1
  1. 1.Swiss Federal Institute for water Resources and Water Pollution Control (EAWAG)DübendorfSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations