With or without Effect
This is the longest chapter in the treatise. Nāgārjuna examines here the relationship between cause and effect to show that causal relation cannot be explained rationally. If there is a causal relation, is cause with effect and then produces it? Or is the cause first without the effect and then produces it? Nāgārjuna argues that neither case can be established. The issue is also whether an effect is already real in a cause or at the outset unreal in a cause, and whether an effect pre-exists in a cause or not. Nāgārjuna tries to point out that causal production is impossible by showing that causal relation cannot be established.
KeywordsClay Dust Smoke Straw
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