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Abstract

This concluding Chapter will discuss Hegel’s conception of, what was termed in Part II, socio-psychical dynamics, namely, the inter-relations between a theory of self and society. Many commentators have drawn attention to what John Plamenatz called the shift from a preoccupation with rationality in the eighteenth century to one with self-consciousness.1 To appreciate this shift both a long-term and short-term perspective is needed.

Keywords

Human Nature Biological Survival Twin Theme Term Civil Society Contemporary British Philosophy 
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References

  1. 1.
    Karl Marx’s Philosophy of Man, p. 67.Google Scholar
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    Cf. L. Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity, Chap. 1, itself a synthesis of such ‘trends’.Google Scholar
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    This preoccupation by Rousseau has given rise to numerous ‘psychological’ and ‘psychoanalytical’ studies; the most notable of these is J. Starobinski, J.J. Rousseau: la Transparence et l’Obstacle. Google Scholar
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    For example, R. Schacht (Alienation) deals with Hegel, Marx and their successors. I. Meszaros (Marx’s Theory of Alienation, Chap. 1) and Plamenatz do draw attention to Rousseau’s importance, and Meszaros also refers to Diderot, whose Neveu de Rameu (popularised in Germany by Goethe), as Trilling discusses, had deep impact on Hegel’s depiction of der sich entfremdete Geist in the Phänomenologie. M. Berman (The Politics of Authenticity) provides a general interpretation of Rousseau’s thought, in which Rousseau’s central concern is held to be with a world in which men were alienated not only from themselves but from each other; a concern which is said by Berman to prefigure Marxism in many way.Google Scholar
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    The debt that Hegel owes to Schiller’s Briefe über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menchen (1794/5), which Hegel declared to be “a masterpiece” on its appearance (Briefe, ed. J. Hoffmeister, Vol. I, p. 25 [to Schelling, 16 April 1795]), is often pointed out in this regard. More generally, R. Plant (Hegel) sees as the key to the identity of Hegel’s thought the twin themes of personal fragmentation and social division (p. 28) and the role Hegel allots to philosophy to harmonise these fissures (p. 88).Google Scholar
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    The link between Kant and Rousseau is explored in several writings of E. Cassirer but as a useful corrective to an overly Kantian reading of Rousseau see R. Derathé, Le Rationalisme de J.J. Rousseau & J. Shklar, Men and Citizens: A Study of Rousseau’s Social Theory, Chap. 2.Google Scholar
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    K. Olivecrona notes that Locke’s term ‘property’ or ‘propriety’ is a translation of Grotius’ ‘suum’. ‘Appropriation in the State of Nature: Locke on the Origin of Property’, JHI (1974) 218.Google Scholar
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    See also First Treatise, para. 92 — “Property, whose original is from the right a man has to use any of the inferior creatures for the subsistence and comfort of his life, is for the benefit and sole advantage of the proprietor, so that he may even destroy the thing that he has property in by use of it, where need requires”.Google Scholar
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  32. 32.
    Cf. W.H. Walsh, The Constancy of Human Nature’, in Contemporary British Philosophy, ed. H.D. Lewis, p. 278.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher J. Berry

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