Role of Catecholamines in the Pathogenesis of Primary Hypertension

  • P. W. de Leeuw
  • W. H. Birkenhäger
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 16)


As illustrated elsewhere in this book, the autonomic nervous system plays a major role in blood pressure control by modulating venous capacity, heart rate and contractility and arteriolar resistance. The intensity of sympathetic stimulation varies greatly with posture, activity, physical conditioning and emotional state.


Essential Hypertension Plasma Noradrenaline Plasma Catecholamine Primary Hypertension Adrenergic Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beretta-Piccoli C, Weidmann P, Meier A, Grimm M, Keusch G, Glück Z: Effects of short-term norepinephrine infusion on plasma catecholamines, renin and aldosterone in normal and hypertensive man. Hypertension 2: 623, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bertel O, Bühler FR, Kiowski W, Lütold BE: Decreased beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness as related to age, blood pressure, and plasma catacholamines in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 2: 130, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bing RF, Harlow J, Smith AJ, Townshend MH: The urinary excretion of catecholamines and their derivatives in primary hypertension in man. Clin Sci Mol Med 52: 319, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brandsborg O, Brandsborg M, Løogreen NA, Christensen NJ: Increased plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin in patients with duodenal ulcer. Eur J Clin Invest 8: 11, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brecht HM, Schoeppe W: Relation of plasma noradrenaline to blood pressure, age, sex and sodium balance in patients with stable essential hypertension and in normotensive subjects. Clin Sci Mol Med 55 (Suppl 4): 81s, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chobanian AV, Gavras H, Melby JC, Gavras I, Jick H: Relationship of basal plasma noradrenaline to blood pressure, age, sex, plasma renin activity and plasma volume in essential hypertension. Clin Sci Mol Med 55 (Suppl 4): 93s, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chodakowska J, Nazar K, Wocial B, Jarecki M, Shórka B: Plasma catecholamines and renin activity in response to exercise in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Sci Mol Med 49: 511, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christensen MS, Christensen NJ: Plasma catecholamines in hypertension. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 30: 169, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clement DL, Bogaert MG, Moerman EZ, De Schaepdrijver AF: Significance of elevated plasma noradrenaline in patients with essential hypertension. In: Circulating Catecholamines and Blood Pressure. Birkenhäger WH, Falke HE, eds. Utrecht: Bunge Scientific, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cousineau D, DeChamplain J, Lapointe L: Circulating catecholamines and systolic time intervals in labile and sustained hypertension. Clin Sci Mol Med 55 (Suppl 4): 65s, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis JO: The control of renin release. Am J Med 55: 333, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Champlain J, Farley L, Cousineau D, Van Ameringen MR: Circulating catecholamine levels in human and experimental hypertension. Circ Res 38: 109, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    DeChamplain J, Cousineau D: Lack of correlation between age and circulating catecholamines in hypertensive patients. N Engl J Med 297: 672, 1977.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    DeLeeuw PW, Falke HE, Kho TL, VanDongen R, Wester A, Birkenhäger WH: Effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on diurnal variability of blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline levels. Acta Med. Scand 202: 389. 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    DeLeeuw PW, Falke HE, Punt R, Birkenhäger WH: Noradrenaline secretion by the human kidney. Clin Sci Mol. Med 55 (Suppl 4): 85s, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    DeLeeuw PW, Wester A, Punt R, Falke HE, Birkenhäger WH: Noradrenaline levels in essential hypertensives and normotensive controls. Neth J Med 22: 145, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    DeLeeuw PW, Punt R, Birkenhäger WH: Renal blood flow and noradrenaline secretion during treatment with propranolol. Clin Sci 59 (Suppl 6): 477s, 1980.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    DeQuattro V, Chan S: Raised plasma-catecholamines in some patients with primary hypertension. Lancet i: 806, 1972.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    DeQuattro F, Miura Y, Lurvey A, Cosgrove M, Mendez R: Increased plasma catecholamine concentrations and vas deferens norepinephrine biosynthesis in men with elevated blood pressure. Circ. Res 36: 118, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Doyle AE, Fraser JRE: Essential hypertension and inheritance of vascular reactivity. Lancet ii: 509, 1961.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Engelman, K, Portnoy B, Sjoerdsma A: Plasma catecholamine concentrations in patients with hypertension. Circ Res 26/27 (Suppl 1 ): 141, 1970.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Esler MD, Nestel PJ: High catecholamine essential hypertension: clinical and physiological characteristics. Aust. N.ZJ. Med 3: 117, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Esler M, Julius S, Zweifler A, Randall O, Harburg E, Gardiner H, DeQuattro V: Mild high-renin essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 296: 405, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferrario CM, Dickinson CJ, McCubbin JW: Central vasomotor stimulation by angiotensin. Clin Sci 39: 239, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Franco-Morselli R, Elghozi JL, Joly E, Diginilio S, Meyer P: Increased plasma adrenaline concentrations in benign essential hypertension. Br Med J 2: 1251, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Henry DP, Luft FC, Weinberger MH, Fineberg NS, Grim CE: Norepinephrine in urine and plasma following provocative maneuvers in normal and hypertensive subjects. Hypertension 2: 20, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hofman A, Boomsma F, Schalekamp, MADH, Valkenburg HA: Raised blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline concentrations in teenagers and young adults selected from an open population. Br Med J 1: 1536, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hollenberg NK, Adams DF, Solomon H, Chenitz WR, Burger BM, Abrams HL, Merrill JP: Renal vascular tone in essential and secondary hypertension. Medicine 54: 29, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hong Tai Eng FW, Huber-Smith M, McCann DS: The role of sympathetic activity in normal renin essential hypertension. Hypertension 2: 14, 1980.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ibsen H, Christensen NJ, Hollnagel H, Leth A, Kappelgaard AM, Giese J: Plasma noradrenaline concentration in hypertensive and normotensive 40-year-old individuals: relationship to plasma renin concentration. Clin Sci 57 (Suppl 5): 181s, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jiang NS, Stoffer SS, Pikler GM, Wadel O, Sheps SG: Laboratory and clinical observations with a two-column plasma catecholamine assay. Mayo Clin Proc 48: 47, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jones DH, Hamilton CA, Reid JL: Plasma noradrenaline, age and blood pressure: a population study. Clin Sci Mol Med 55 (Suppl 4): 73s, 1978.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jones DH, Hamilton CA, Reid JL: Choice of control groups in the appraisal of sympathetic nervous activity in essential hypertension. Clin Sci 57: 339, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jones DH, Allison DJ, Hamilton CA, Reid JL: Selective venous sampling in the diagnosis and localization of phaeochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol 10: 179, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kiowski W, Van Brummelen P, Bühler FR: Plasma noradrenaline correlates with α-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Sci 57 (Suppl 5): 177s, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kuchel O: Autonomic nervous system in hypertension: clinical aspects. In: Hypertension-physiopathology and treatment. Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel O, eds. New York: McGraw-hill, 1977.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lake CR, Ziegler MG, Coleman MD, Kopin IJ: Age-adjusted plasma norepinephrine levels are similar in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. N Engl. J Med 296: 208, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lorimer AR, McFarlane PW, Provan G, Duflie T, Lowrie TD: Blood pressure and catecholamine responses to “stress” in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Cardiovasc. Res 5: 169, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Louis WJ, Doyle AE, Anavekar S: Plasma norepinephrine levels in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 228: 599, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Louis WJ, Doyle AE, Anavekar SN, Johnston CI, Geffen LB, Rush R: Plasma catecholamine, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and renin levels in essential hypertension. Circ Res 34/35 (Suppl 1 ): 57, 1974.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Luft FC, Weinberger MH, Grim CE, Henry DP, Fineberg NS: Nocturnal urinary electrolyte excretion and its relationship to the renin system and sympathetic activity in normal and hypertensive man. J Lab Clin Med 95: 395, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miller JZ, Luft FC, Grim CE, Henry DP, Christian JC, Weinberger MH: Genetic influences on plasma and urinary norepinephrine after volume expansion and contraction in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 219, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miura Y, Kobayashi K, Sakuma H, Tomioka H, Adacki M, Yoshinago K: Plasma noradrenaline concentrations and haemodynamics in the early stage of essential hypertension. Clin Sci Mol Med 55 (Suppl 4): 69s, 1978.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nestel PJ, Doyle AE: The excretion of free noradrenaline and adrenaline by healthy young subjects and by patients with essential hypertension. Aust Ann Med 17: 295, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nicholls MG, Kiowski W, Zweifler AJ, Julius S, Schork MA, Greenhouse J: Plasma norepinephrine variations with dietary sodium intake. Hypertension 2: 29, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pedersen EB, Christensen NJ: Catecholamines in plasma and urine in patients with essential hypertension determined by double-isotope derivative techniques. Acta Med Scand 198: 373, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Philipp T, Distler A, Cordes U: Sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure control in essential hypertension. Lancet ii: 959, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Planz G, Gierlichs HW, Hawlina A, Planz R, Stephany W, Rahn KH: A comparison of catecholamine concentrations and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activities in plasma from normotensive subjects and from patients with essential hypertension at rest and during exercise. Klin Wochenschr 54: 561, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Planz G, Planz R, Persigehl M, Bundschu HD, Heintz R: Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentration in blood of suprarenal and renal vein in man with normal blood pressure and with essential hypertension. Klin Wochenschr 56: 1109, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Prinz PN, Halter J, Benedetti C, Raskind M: Circadian variation of plasma catecholamines in young and old men: relation to rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 300, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rahn KH, Henquet JW, Kho T, Schols M, Thijssen H: Plasma catecholamine levels and the renin-angiotensin-system in subjects with borderline hypertension. In: Hypertension-Mechanisms and Management. Philipp T, Distler A, eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1980.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robertson D, Johnson G, Robertson RM, Nies AS, Shand DG, Oates JA: Comparative assessment of stimuli that release neuronal and adrenomedullary catecholamines in man. Circulation 59: 637, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Robertson D, Shand DG, Hollifield JW, Nies AS, Frölich JC, Oates J: Alterations in the response of the sympathetic nervous system and renin in borderline hypertension. Hypertension 1: 118, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Safar ME, London GM, Weiss YA, Milliez PI: Vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and hemodynamic parameters in borderline hypertension. Am Heart J 89: 480, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sever PS, Binch M, Osikowska B, Tunbridge RDG: Plasma-noradrenaline in essential hypertension. Lancet i: 1078, 1977.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sever PS: Catecholamines in essential hypertension: the present controversy. In: Circulating Catecholamines and Blood Pressure. Birkenhäger WH, Falke HE, eds. Utrecht: Bunge Scientific, 1978.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sever PS, Peart WS, Davies IB, Tunbridge RDG, Gordon D: Ethnic differences in blood pressure with observations on noradrenaline and renin - 2. A hospital hypertensive popu-lation. Clin Exp Hypertension 1: 745, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sleight P, Floras JS, Hassan MO, Jones JV, Osikowska BA, Sever P, Turner KL: Baroreflex control of blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline during exercise in essential hypertension. Clin Sci 57 (Suppl 5): 169s, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Taylor AA, Pool JL, Lake CR, Ziegler MG, Rosen RA, Rollins DE, Mitchell JR: Plasma norepinephrine concentrations - no differences among normal volunteers and low, high or normal renin hypertensive patients. Life Sci 22: 1499, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Thurton MB, Deegan T: Circadian variations of plasma catecholamine, Cortisol and immunoreactive insulin concentrations in supine subjects. Clin Chim Ach 55: 389, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Watson RDS, Hamilton CA, Reid JL, Littler WA: Changes in plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate during physical activity in hypertensive man. Hypertension 1: 341, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Watson RDS, Page AJF, Littler WA, Jones DH, Reid JL: Plasma noradrenaline concentrations at different vascular sites during rest and isometric and dynamic exercise. Clin Sci 57: 545, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Watson RDS, Stallard TJ, Flinn RM, Littler WA: Factors determining direct arterial pressure and its variability in hypertensive man. Hypertension 2: 333, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weidmann P, Hirsch D, Beretta-Piccoli C, Reubi FC: Interrelations among blood pressure, blood volume, plasma renin activity and urinary catecholamines in benign essential hyper-tension. Am J Med 62: 209, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weidmann P, Beretta-Piccoli C, Ziegler WH, Keusch G, Glück Z, Reubi FC: Age versus urinary sodium forjudging renin, aldosterone, and catecholamine levels: studies in normal subjects and patients with essential hypertension. Kidney Int 14: 619, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Weidmann P, Grimm M, Meier A, Glück Z, Keusch G, Minder I, Beretta-Piccoli C: Cardiovascular pressor reactivity as related to plasma catecholamines: role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and in the antihypertensive mechanism of diuretic treatment. In: Hypertension - Mechanisms and Management. Philipp T, Distler A, eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1979.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zadik Z, Hamilton BP, Kowarski AA, Lukas K: Integrated concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine in normal subjects and in patients with mild essential hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 842, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. de Leeuw
  • W. H. Birkenhäger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations