Contrast Echocardiography in the Assessment of Cyanotic and Complex Congenital Heart Disease: Peripheral Venous, Invasive, and Unique Applications

  • James B. Seward
  • Abdul J. Tajik
  • Donald J. Hagler
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 15)


Contrast echocardiography has become a well-established adjunct to the M-mode [1] and two-dimensional [2, 3] echocardiographic examinations. This statement is even more true when applied to congenital heart disease. In these situations, the echocardiographic anatomy and contrast echocardiographic blood-flow patterns are often such sensitive indicators and so diagnostic that the specific defect can be readily and confidently appreciated at the bedside [3, 4]. It can be stated that the more complex the defect, the more likely is the existence of lesion-specific echocardiographic anatomy and blood-flow patterns.


Left Atrium Right Ventricle Patent Ductus Arteriosus Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Seward
  • Abdul J. Tajik
  • Donald J. Hagler

There are no affiliations available

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