The Roles of Plant Secondary Chemicals in Wet Tropical Ecosystems

  • Jean H. Langenheim
Part of the Tasks for vegetation Science book series (TAVS, volume 12)


Structurally diverse so called “secondary compounds” probably play a multiplicity of roles in the survival of plants within ecosystems. The occurrence, diversity and concentration of some of these chemicals appear to be greater in tropical than temperate ecosystems, and in wet than dry ecosystems. This correlates with the assumption that herbivore and pathogen selection pressures are also greater in these ecosystems. Alkaloids, non-protein amino acids, terpenes and phenolic compounds have received the most attention in the relatively few ecological investigations of these chemicals in the wet tropics. Studies are discussed of the following: 1) floral fragrances as pollination attractants, 2) legume seed toxins against insects, 3) chemical variation on contrasting soil types relative to mammalian and insect herbivory, 4) chemical defense relative to successional status, 5) allelopathy, and 6) environmental constraints on production and variation of terpenoid resins in legumes, and the role of the variability in defense against insects and fungi. Future investigations, taking the perspective of plant physiological ecology, in which the costs of these chemicals in terms of the overall economy of the plant’s fitness are determined, would probably necessitate interdisciplinary collaboration due to the inherent complexity of wet tropical ecosystems.


Condensed Tannin Chemical Defense Secondary Compound Secondary Plant Metabolite Floral Fragrance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amo S del and Anaya AL (1978) Effect of some sesquiterpenic lactones on the growth of certain secondary tropical species, J. Chem. Ecol. 4, 305–315.Google Scholar
  2. Anaya AL and Gomez-Pompa A (1971) Inhibicion del crescimiento producida por el “Piru” (schinus molie L). Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 32, 99–109.Google Scholar
  3. Anaya AL and Amo S del (1978) Allelopathic potential of Ambrosia cumanensis HBK (Compositae) in a tropical zone of Mexico, J. Chem. Ecol. 4, 289–304.Google Scholar
  4. Arrhenius SP, Foster CE, Edmonds CG and Langenheim JH (1983) Sesquiterpenes in leaf pocket resin of Copaifera (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae ), Phytochemistry 22, 471–472.Google Scholar
  5. Arrhenius SP and Langenheim JH (1983) Inhibitory effects of Hymenaea and Copaifera leaf resins on an associated leaf fungus, Pestalotia subcuticularis, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 11, in press.Google Scholar
  6. Atabekov JG (1975) Host specificity of plant viruses, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 13, 124–146.Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin IT and Schultz JC (1983) Rapid changes in tree chemistry induced by damage: evidence for communication between plants, Science 221, 277–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigger M (1976) Oscillations of tropical insect populations, Nature 259, 207–209.Google Scholar
  9. Boll PM and Anderson B (1962) Alkaloid glycosides from Solanum dulcamarum III Differentiation of geographical strains by means of thin-layer chromatography, Planta Mec. 10, 421–432.Google Scholar
  10. Camp WH (1949) Cinchona at high altitudes in Ecuador, Brittonia 6, 394–430.Google Scholar
  11. Chew FS and Rodman JE (1979) Plant resources for chemical defense. In Rosenthal GH and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites, pp 271–300. New York, Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Coley PD (1983) Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest, Ecol. Monog. 53, 209–233.Google Scholar
  13. Connell JH (1970) On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. Proc. Adv. Study Inst. Dynamics Numbers Popl. ( Oosterbeck ), 298–312.Google Scholar
  14. Crankshaw DR and Langenheim JH (1981) Variation in terpenes and phenolics through leaf development in Hymenaea and its possible significance to herbivory, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9, 116–124.Google Scholar
  15. Cruickshank IAM (1963) Phytoalexins, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 1, 351–374.Google Scholar
  16. del Moral R (1972) On the variability of chlorogenic acid concentration, Oecologia 9, 289–300.Google Scholar
  17. Derman BD, Rupp DC and Nooden LD (1978) Mineral distribution in relation to fruit development and monocarpic senescence in Anoka soybeans, Amer. J. Bot. 65, 205–213.Google Scholar
  18. Dethier VG (1959) Food-plant distribution and density and larval dispersals as factors affecting insect populations, Can. Entomol. 91, 581–596.Google Scholar
  19. Dethier VG (1970) Chemical interactions between plants and insects. In Sondheimer E and Simeone JB, eds. Chemical ecology, pp. 83–120. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dodson CH (1970) The role of chemical attractants in orchid pollination, Biochemical coevolution, Oregon State University Press, 83– 107.Google Scholar
  21. Dodson CH (1975) Coevolution of orchids and bees. In Gilbert LE and Raven PH, eds. Coevolution of animals and plants, pp 91–99. Austin, Tx., University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dodson CH, Dressier RL, Hollis HG and Adams RM (1969) Biologically active compounds in orchid fragrances, Science 164, 1243–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dolinger PM, Ehrlich PR, Fitch WL and Breedlove DE (1973) Alkaloid and predation patterns in Colorado lupine populations, Oecologia 13, 191–204.Google Scholar
  24. Earle FR and Jones Q (1962) Analysis of seed samples from 113 plant families, Econ. Bot. 16, 221–250.Google Scholar
  25. Ehrlich PR and Raven PH (1964) Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution, Evolution 18, 586–608.Google Scholar
  26. Feeny P (1975) Biochemical coevolution between plants and their insect herbivores. In Gilbert LE and Raven PH eds. Coevolution of animals and plants, pp 3–19. Austin, Tx., University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  27. Feeny PP (1976) Plant apparency and chemical defense. In Wallace JM and Mansell RJ, eds. Biochemical interaction between plants and insects, Recent Adv. Phytochem. 10, 1–40.Google Scholar
  28. Fong HHS, Trojankova M, Trojanet JT and Farnsworth NR (1972) Alkaloid screening II Lloydia 35, 117–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Freeland WJ and Janzen DH (1974) Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds, Amer. Nat. 108, 269–239.Google Scholar
  30. Gartlan JS, McKay DB, Waterman PG, Mbi CN and Struhsaker TT (1980) A comparative study of the phytochemistry of two African rainforests, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 8, 401–422.Google Scholar
  31. Gershenzon J, Lincoln DE and Langenheim JH (1978) The effect of moisture stress on monoterpenoid yield and composition in Satureja douglasii, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 6, 33–43.Google Scholar
  32. Gliessman SR (1976) Allelopathy in a broad spectrum of environments is illustrated by bracken, Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 73, 95–104.Google Scholar
  33. Gliessman SR (1978) Allelopathy as a potential mechanism of dominance in the humid tropics, Trop. Ecology 19, 200–208.Google Scholar
  34. Gliessman SR (1983) Allelopathic interactions in crop/weed mixtures: applications for weed management, J. Chem. Ecol. 9.Google Scholar
  35. Golley FB (1972) Energy flux in ecosystems. In Wiens JA, ed. Ecosystem structure and function. Oregon State Univ. Ann. Biol. Colloq. 31, 69–90.Google Scholar
  36. Gordon HT (1961) Nutritional factors in insect resistance to chemicals, Ann. Rev. Entomol. 6, 27–54.Google Scholar
  37. Gottlieb OR and Mors WB (1978) Fitoquimica Amazonica: um apreciacao em perspective, Interciencia 3, 252–263Google Scholar
  38. Gottlieb OR and Mors WB (1980) Potential utilization of Brazilian wood extractives, J. Agric. Food Chem. 28, 196–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hagen KS (1976) Role of nutrition in insect management, Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. on Ecol. Animal Control by Habitat Management 6, 221–261.Google Scholar
  40. Hamrick JH, Linhart YB and Mitton JB (1979) Relationships between life history characteristics and electrophoretically detectable genetic variation in plants, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10, 173–200.Google Scholar
  41. Hanover JW (1971) Genetics of terpenes: II. Genetic variances and interrelationships of monoterpenoid concentrations in Pinus monticola, Heredity 27, 237–245.Google Scholar
  42. Harborne JB (1982) Introduction to ecological biochemistry, London, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  43. Harcourt DC (1969) The development and rise of life tables in the study of natural insect populations, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 14, 175–196.Google Scholar
  44. Hartley TG, Dunstona EA, Fitzgerald JS, Johns SR and Lamberton JA (1973) A survey of New Guinea plants for alkaloids, Lloydia 36, 217–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Heringer EP (1971) Arvores uteis da regiao geoeconomica do distrato federal, Cerrado 7, 27–32.Google Scholar
  46. Hodges JD and Lorio PL (1975) Moisture stress and composition of xylem oleoresin in loblolly pine, Forest Science 22, 283–292.Google Scholar
  47. Holliday P (1971) Some tropical plant pathogenic fungi of limited distribution, Rev. Plant. Pathol. 50, 337–348.Google Scholar
  48. Ikeda T, Matsumura F and Benjamin DM (1977) Chemical basis for feeding adaptation of pine sawflies neodiprior rugifrons and neodiprionswainei, Science 197, 497–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jameson DA (1971) Degradation and accumulation of inhibitory substances from Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Litle. In Biochemical Interactions Among Plants, pp. 121–127 Washington, D.C., U.S. Nat’l Acad. Sci.Google Scholar
  50. Janzen DH (1969) Seed-eaters versus seed size, number, toxicity and dispersal, Evolution 23, 1–27.Google Scholar
  51. Janzen DH (1970) Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests, Amer. Naturalist 104, 501–528.Google Scholar
  52. Janzen DH (1973a) Community structure of secondary compounds in plants. Pure & Applied Chemistry 34, 529–538.Google Scholar
  53. Janzen DH (1973b) Sweep samples of tropical foliage insects: effects of seasons, vegetation types, elevation, time of day and insularity, Ecology 54, 687–708.Google Scholar
  54. Janzen DH (1973c) Sweep samples of tropical foliage insects: description of study sites, with data on species abundance and size distribution, Ecology 54, 659–686.Google Scholar
  55. Janzen DH (1974) Tropical blackwater rivers, animals and mast fruiting by the Dipterocarpaceae, Biotropica 6, 69–103Google Scholar
  56. Janzen DH (1979) New horizons in the biology of plant defense. In Rosenthal GH and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores: their interactions with secondary metabolites, pp 331–348. New York, N.Y., Academic Press.Google Scholar
  57. Janzen DH (1981) Patterns of herbivory in a tropical deciduous forest, Biotropica 13, 271– 282Google Scholar
  58. Janzen DH and Schoener TN (1968) Difference in insect abundance and diversity between wetter and drier sites during a tropical dry season, Ecology 49, 96–110.Google Scholar
  59. Janzen DH and Pond CN (1975) A comparison by sweep sampling of the arthropod fauna of secondary vegetation in Michigan, England and Costa Rica, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 127, 33–50.Google Scholar
  60. Janzen DH, Juster HB and Ball EA (1977) Toxicity of secondary compounds to the seed- eating larvae of the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, Phytochemistry 16, 223–227.Google Scholar
  61. Jones DA (1979) Chemical defense: primary or secondary metabolism? Am Nat 113, 445–451.Google Scholar
  62. Kogan M and Paxton J (1983) Natural inducers of plant resistance to insects. In Hedin PA, ed. Plant resistance to insects, pp. 153–171. Washington, D.C., ACS Symposium Series 208.Google Scholar
  63. Krieger RI, Feeny PP and Wilkinson CF (1971) Detoxification enzymes in the guts of caterpillars: An evolutionary answer to plant defenses? Science 172, 579–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Langenheim JH (1969) Amber: a botanical inquiry, Science 168, 1157–1169.Google Scholar
  65. Langenheim JH (1973) Leguminous resinproduuing trees in South America and Africa. In Meggers BJ, Ayensu ES and Duckworth WD, eds. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: A comparative review, pp 89–104. Washington, DC, Smithsonian Press.Google Scholar
  66. Langenheim JH (1975) Role of the tropics in evolution of resinproducing trees. Proc. VII Internatl. Bot. Congress, Leningrad, 116.Google Scholar
  67. Langenheim JH (1981) Terpenoids in the Leguminosae. In Polhill RH and Raven PH, eds. Advances in legume systematics, pp. 627–655. Kew, UK, Proc. int. Legume Congress, Royal Bot. Gard.Google Scholar
  68. Langenheim JH (1981) Terpenoids in the Leguminosae. In Polhill RH and Raven PH, eds. Advances in legume systematics, pp. 627–655. Kew, UK, Proc. int. Legume Congress, Royal Bot. Gard.Google Scholar
  69. Langenheim JH, Lee YT and Martin SS (1973) An evolutionary and ecological perspective of the Amazonian hylaea species of Hymenaea (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae ), Acta Amazonica 3, 5–38.Google Scholar
  70. Langenheim JH, Stubblebine WH, Foster CE and Nascimento JC (1977) Estudos comparativos da variabilidada na composicao da resina da folha entre arvore parental e progenie de especies selectionadas de Hymenaea. I. Comparacao de populacoes Amazonica e Venezuelanas, Acta Amazonica 7, 335–354.Google Scholar
  71. Langenheim JH, Foster CE, Lincoln DE and Stubblebine WH (1978) Implications of variation in resin composition among organs, tissues and populations in the tropical legume Hymenaea, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 6, 299–213.Google Scholar
  72. Langenheim JH, Stubblebine WH and Foster LE (1979) Effect of moisture stress on leaf resin composition and yield in Hymenaea courbaril, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 7, 21–28.Google Scholar
  73. Langenheim JH, Foster CE and McGinley RM (1980) Inhibitory effects of different quantitative compositions of Hymenaea leaf resins on a generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 8, 385–396.Google Scholar
  74. Langenheim JH, Arrhenius SP and Nascimento JC (1981) Relationship of light intensity to leaf resin composition and yield in the leguminous genera Hymenaea and Copaifera, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9, 27–37.Google Scholar
  75. Langenheim JH, Lincoln DE, Stubblebine WH and Gabrielli AL (1982) Evolutionary implications of leaf resin pocket patterns in the tropical tree Hymenaea (caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae ), Amer. J. Bot. 69, 595–607.Google Scholar
  76. Langenheim JH and Hall GD (1983) Sesquiterpene deterrence of a leaf-tying lepidopteran Stenoma ferrocanella on Hymenaea stigonocarpa in Central Brazil, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 11, 29–36.Google Scholar
  77. Langenheim JH and Stubblebine WH (1983) Variation in resin composition between parent tree and progeny in Hymenaea: Implications for herbivory in the humid tropics, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 11, 97–106.Google Scholar
  78. Langenheim JH, Osmond CB, Brooks A and Ferrar PJ (1983a) Photosynthetic responses to light of Amazonian and Australian rainforest seedlings, Oecologia, In Pres.Google Scholar
  79. Langenheim JH, Convis CL, Stopol KL, and Stubblebine WH (1983b) Chemical leaf defense of Copaifera and Hymenaea against lepidopteran insects in sao Paulo State, Jour. S.P. Forestry, in Press.Google Scholar
  80. Lee YT and Langenheim JH (1975) Systematics of the genus Hymenaea (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae), Univ. of Calif. Public. in Botany no 69, 109 p, Berkeley, Calif., Univ. of Calif. Press.Google Scholar
  81. Levin DA (1971) Plant phenolics: an ecological perspective, Amer. Nat. 105, 157–181.Google Scholar
  82. Levin DA (1975) Pest pressures and recombination systems in plants, Amer. Nat. 109, 437–451.Google Scholar
  83. Levin DA (1976a) The chemical defense of plants to pathogens and herbivores, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7, 121–160.Google Scholar
  84. Levin DA (1976b) Alkaloid-bearing plants: an ecogeographic perspective, Amer. Nat. 110, 261– 284.Google Scholar
  85. Levin DA and York BM (1978) The toxicity of plant alkaloids: an ecogeographic perspective, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 6, 61–76.Google Scholar
  86. Loomis WD and Croteau R (1973) Biochemistry and physiology of lower terpenoids, Recent Adv. in Phytochem. 6, 147–185.Google Scholar
  87. Loomis WD and Croteau R (1980) Biochemistry of terpenoids. In Stumpf PK and Conn E, eds. The biochemistry of plants 4, pp. 363–418, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Mabry TJ and Ulubelen H (1980) Chemistry and utilization of phenylpropanoids including flavonoids, coumarins and lignans, J. Agric. Food Chem. 28, 188–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Martin SS, Langenheim JH, Zavarin E (1974) Quantitative variation in leaf pocket resin composition of Hymenaea courbaril, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3, 760–787.Google Scholar
  90. Martin SS, Langenheim JH and Zavarin E (1976) Quantitative variation of leaf resin composition in Hymenaea, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 4, 181–191.Google Scholar
  91. McKey DB (1974) Adaptive patterns in alkaloid physiology, Amer. Nat. 108, 305–320.Google Scholar
  92. McKey D (1979) The distribution of secondary compounds within plants. In Rosenthal GH and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites, pp. 55–133. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  93. McKey DB, Waterman PG, Msi CH, Gartlan JS and Struhsaker TT (1978) Phenolic content of vegetation in two African rain forests: ecological implications, Science 202, 61–63.Google Scholar
  94. Meinwald J, Prestwich CD, Nakanishi K and Kubo I (1978) Chemical ecology: studies from East Africa, Science 199, 1167–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mooney HA and Gulman SL (1982) Constraints on leaf structure and function in reference to herbivory, Bioscience 32, 198–206Google Scholar
  96. Mooney HA, Gulman SL and Johnson ND (1983) Physiological constraints on plant chemical defenses. In Hedin PA, ed. Plant resistance to insects, pp.21–36. Washington, D.C., ACS Symposium Series 208.Google Scholar
  97. Nascimento JC (1980) Ecological studies of sesquiterpenes and phenolic compounds in leaves of Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Leguminosae) in a Central Amazonian rainforest, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz.Google Scholar
  98. Oates JF, Swain T and Zantovska J (1977) Secondary compounds and food selection by colobus monkeys, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5, 317– 321.Google Scholar
  99. Oates JF, Waterman PG and Choo GM (1980) Food selection by the South Indian leaf monkey, Presbytis johnii, in relation to leaf chemistry, Oecologia 45, 45–56.Google Scholar
  100. Reichstein T (1963) Chemische Rassen von Strophanthus sarmentosus, Planta Med. 11, 293– 302.Google Scholar
  101. Rehr SS, Ball EA, Janzen DH and Feeny PP (1973) Insecticidal amino acids in legume seeds. Biochem. Syst. 1, 63–67.Google Scholar
  102. Rehr SS, Janzen DH and Feeny PP (197 3) L-dopa in legume seeds: A chemical barrier to insect attack, Science 181, 81–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rhoades DE (1979) Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores. In Rosenthal GH and Janzen DH, eds, Herbivores: their interactions with secondary plant metabolites, pp. 4–48. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  104. Rhoades DF (1983) Responses of alder and willow to attack by tent caterpillars and webworms: evidence for pheromonal sensitivity of willows. In Heden PA, ed. Plant resistance to insects, pp. 55–68. Washington, D.C., ACS Symposium Series 208.Google Scholar
  105. Rhoades DF and Cates RG (1976) Toward a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry. In Wallace JM and Mansell RJ, eds. Biochemical interaction between plants and insects, Recent Adv. Phytochem. 10, 168–213.Google Scholar
  106. Rice EL (1974) Allelopathy. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  107. Rice EL (1977) Some roles of allelopathic compounds in plant communities, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5, 200–206.Google Scholar
  108. Robinson T (1979) The evolutionary ecology of alkaloids. In Rosenthal GA and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores their interaction with secondary plant metabolites, pp. 413–448. New York, N.Y., Academic Press.Google Scholar
  109. Rosenthal GA (1983) Biochemical adaptations of the bruchid beetle, Caryedes brasiliensis to L– canavanine, a higher plant allelochemical, J. Chem. Ecol. 9, in Press.Google Scholar
  110. Rosenthal GA (1974) The interrelationship of canavanine and urease in seeds of the Lotoideae, J. Exp. Bot. 25, 609–613.Google Scholar
  111. Rosenthal GA (1977) Nitrogen allocation for L-canavanine synthesis and its relationship to chemical defense of the seed, Biochem. Syst. Eco. 5, 219–220.Google Scholar
  112. Rosenthal GA, Dahlman DL and Janzen DH (1976) A novel means for dealing with L–canavanine, a toxic metabolite, Science 192, 256–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rosenthal GA, Janzen DH and Dahlman DL (1977) Degradation and detoxification of canavanine by a specialized seed predator, Science 196, 658– 660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rosenthal GA and Ball EA(1979) Naturally occurring, toxic nonprotein amino acids. In Rosenthal GA and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites, pp. 353–385. New York, N.Y., Academic Press.Google Scholar
  115. Rosenthal GA, Hughes C and Janzen DH (1982) L-canavanine, a dietary source for the seed predator Caryedes brasiliensis ( Bruchidae ), Science 217, 353–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ryan CA (1979) Proteinase inhibitors. In Rosenthal GA and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites, pp. 599–617. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  117. Ryan DF and Bormann FH (1982) Nutrient resorption in northern hardwood forests, Bioscience 32, 29–32.Google Scholar
  118. Sanders H (1963) Chemische Differenzierung innerhalb der Art Solanum dulcamara L, Plant Med 11, 287–298.Google Scholar
  119. Scriber JM (1973) Latitudinal gradients in larval feeding specialization of the world Papilionidae (Lepidoptera), Psyche 80, 355–373.Google Scholar
  120. Schramm LC and Scharting AE (1961) Alkaloid distribution in Colombian cinchonas, Lloydia 24, 1–26.Google Scholar
  121. Schultz JC (1983) Impact of variable plant defensive chemistry on susceptibility of insects to natural enemies. In Hedin PA, ed. Plant resistance to insects, pp. 39–54. Washington, D.C., ACS Symposium Series 208.Google Scholar
  122. Schultz JC and Baldwin IT (1982) Oak leaf quality declines in response to defoliation by gypsy moth larvae, Science 217, 149–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Schultz JC, Nothnagle PJ and Baldwin IT (1982) Seasonal and individual variation in leaf quality of two northern hardwoods trees species, Araer. J. Bot. 69, 753–759.Google Scholar
  124. Siegler DS and Price PW (1976) Secondary compounds in plants: primary functions, Am. Nat. 110, 101–105.Google Scholar
  125. Siegler DS (1977). Primary roles for secondary compounds, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5, 195–199.Google Scholar
  126. Smith RH (1972) Xylem resin in the resistance of the Pinaceae to bark beetles, U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW–1 Pac. Southwest Forest and Exp. Stat., Berkeley, Calif.Google Scholar
  127. Smolenski SJ, Silinis H and Farnsworth NR (1972) Alkaloid Screening III. Lloydia 36, 359–387.Google Scholar
  128. Smolenski SJ, Silinis H and Farnsworth NR (1973) Alkaloid Screening I. Lloydia 35, 1–34.Google Scholar
  129. Smolenski SJ, Silinis H and Farnsworth NR (1974a) Alkaloid Screening IV. Lloydia 37, 30–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Smolenski SJ, Silinis H and Farnsworth NR (1974b) Alkaloid Screening V. Lloydia 37, 506–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Squillace AE and Dorman KW (1961) Selective breeding of slash pine for high oleoresin yield and other characters, Recent Advances in Botany 2, pp. 1616–1621, Univ. of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  132. Stanton N (1975) Herbivore pressure on two types of tropical forests, Biotropica 7, 8–11.Google Scholar
  133. Stoessel A (1970) Antifungal compounds produced by higher plants. In Stulink C and Runeckles VC, eds. Recent Adv. Phytochem. 3, 143–180.Google Scholar
  134. Strong DR (1977) Insect species richness: Hispine beetles of Heliconia latispatha, Ecology 58, 573–582.Google Scholar
  135. Strong DR and Levin DA (1979) Species richness of plant parasites and growth form of their hosts, Amer. Nat. 114, 1–22.Google Scholar
  136. Stubblebine WH, Lincoln DE and Langenheim JH (1975) Vegetative photoperiodic response and resin composition in Hymenaea courbaril, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3, 219–228.Google Scholar
  137. Stubblebine WH, Lincoln DE and Langenheim JH (1978) Vegetative responses to photoperiod in the tropical leguminous tree Hymenaea courbaril, Biotropica 10, 18–29.Google Scholar
  138. Stubblebine WH and Langenheim JH (1978) Effects of Hymenaea courbaril leaf resin on the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm), J. Chem. Ecol. 3, 633–647.Google Scholar
  139. Stubblebine WH and Langenheim JH (1980) Estudos comparativos da variabilidade na composicao da resina da fola entre arvore parental e progenie de especies selectionadas de Hymenaea. II Comparacao de populacoes adicionas Amazonicas e do sul do Brasil, Acta Amazonica 10, 293–307.Google Scholar
  140. Sturgeon KB (1979) Monoterpene variation in ponderosa pine xylem resin related to western pine beetle predation, Evolution 33, 803–814.Google Scholar
  141. Swain T (1977) Secondary compounds as protective agents, Ann Rev Plant Physiol 28, 479–501.Google Scholar
  142. Swain T (1979) Tannins and lignins. In Rosenthal GH and Janzen DH, eds. Herbivores: their interactions with secondary plant metabolites, pp. 657–681. New York, N.Y. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  143. Von Rudioff E (1975) Volatile leaf oil analysis in chemosystematic studies in North American conifers, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2, 131–167.Google Scholar
  144. Wang TSC, Cheng SY and Tung H (1967) Extraction and analysis of soil organic acids, Soil Sci. 103, 360–366.Google Scholar
  145. Wellman FL (1972) Tropical American plant disease, Metachen, N.J., Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  146. Wender SH (1970) Effects of some environmental stress factors on certain phenolic compounds in tobacco, Recent Adv. Phytochem. 8, 1–29.Google Scholar
  147. Whittaker RH (1970) The biochemical ecology of higher plants. In Sondheimer E and Simeone H, eds. Chemical ecology, pp. 43–70. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  148. Whittaker RH (1975) Communities and ecosystems, 2nd edn. New York, N.Y. Macmillan Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  149. Whittaker RH and Feeny P (1971) Allelochemics: chemical interactions between species, Science 71, 757–770.Google Scholar
  150. Williams NH and Dodson CH (1972) Selective attraction of male euglossine bees to orchid fragrances and its importance in long distance pollen flow, Evolution 26, 84–95.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean H. Langenheim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations