Advertisement

Nonlocality and Peaceful Coexistence

  • Michael Redhead
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 157)

Abstract

The object of the present paper is to investigate the putative tension between the requirements of causality and special relativity (SR) on the one hand and the quantum-mechanical (QM) description of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) thought experiment on the other. A preliminary formulation of the situation is that the EPR phenomenon involves an instantaneous propagation of a physical effect between two spatially separated systems which contradicts the requirements of SR, and moreover would lead to backward causation in appropriately moving reference frames. We will try to unravel this state of affairs in two stages. First we shall ask in what sense, if any, the transmission of a physical effect is involved in the EPR type of experiment and secondly whether SR definitively rules out such a possibility.

Keywords

Physical Review Invariance Principle Bell Inequality Causal Theory Mesh Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antippa, A. F. and Everett, A. E.: 1971, ‘Tachyons without Causal Loops in One Dimension’, Physical Review D4, 2198–2203.Google Scholar
  2. Arthurs, E. and Kelly, J. L.: 1965, ‘On the Simultaneous Measurement of a Pair of Conjugate Observables’, Bell System Technical Journal 44, 725–729.Google Scholar
  3. Aspect, A.: 1976, ‘Proposed Experiment to Test Nonseparability of Quantum Mechanics’, Physical Review D4, 1944–1951.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, J. S.: 1964, ‘On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox’, Physics 1, 195–200.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, J. S.: 1966, ‘On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics’, Reviews of Modern Physics 38, 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, J. S.: 1971, ‘Introduction to the Hidden-Variable Question’, in B. d’Espagnat (ed.), Foundations of Quantum Mechanics ( Proceedings of the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course IL, Academic, New York ), pp. 171–181.Google Scholar
  7. Benford, G. A., Book, D. L. and Newcomb, W. A.: 1970, ‘The Tachyonic Antitelephone’, Physical Review D2, 263–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bilaniuk, O. M. P., Deshpande, V. K., and Sudarshan, E. C. G.: 1962, ‘“Meta” Relativity’, American Journal of physics 30, 718–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilaniuk, O. M. P. and Sudarshan, E. C. G.: 1969, ‘More about Tachyons — The Rebuttal’, Physics Today 22, 30–52.Google Scholar
  10. Bludman, S. A. and Ruderman, H. A.: 1968, ‘Possibility of the Speed of Sound Exceeding the Speed of Light in Ultradense Matter’, Physical Review 170, 1176–1184,Google Scholar
  11. Bohm, D.: 1951, Quantum Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliff, N. J.Google Scholar
  12. Bohr, N.: 1935, ‘Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?’, Physical Review 48, 696–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowie, G. L.: 1979, ‘The Similarity Approach to Counterfactuals: Some Problems’, Nous 13, 477–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brody, T. A.: 1980, ‘Where Does the Bell Inequality Lead?’, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  15. Brody, T. A. and De La Pena-Auerbach, L.: 1979, ‘Real and Imagined Nonlocalities in Quantum Mechanics’, II Nuovo Cimento 54B, 455–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, H. R. and Redhead, M. L. G.: 1981, ‘A Critique of the Disturbance Theory of Indeterminacy in Quantum Mechanics’, Foundations of Physics 11, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldirola, P. and Recami, E.: 1981, ‘Causality and Tachyons in Relativity’, in M. L. Della Chiara (ed.), Italian Studies in the Philosophy of Science, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 249–298.Google Scholar
  18. Clauser, J. F. and Home, M. A.: 1974, ‘Experimental Consequences of Objective Local Theories’, Physical Review D10, 526–535.Google Scholar
  19. Clauser, J. F. and Shimony, A.: 1978, ‘Bell’s Theorem: Experimental Tests and Implications’, Reports on Progress in Physics 41, 1881–1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clay, R. W. and Crouch, P. C.: 1974, ‘Possible Observation of Tachyons Associated with Extensive Air Showers’, Nature 248, 28–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, L.: 1966, ‘Can Quantum Mechanics be Formulated as a Classical Probability Theory?’, Philosophy of Science 33, 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Csonka, P. L.: 1970, ‘Causality and Faster than Light Particles’, Nuclear Physics B21, 436–444.Google Scholar
  23. D’Espagnat, B.: 1976, Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed., Benjamin, Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
  24. Eberhard, P. H.: 1977, ‘Bell’s Theorem without Hidden Variables’, II Nuovo Cimento 38B, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Einstein, A.: 1905, ‘Zur Electrodynamik bewegten Korper’, Annalen der Physik 17, 891–921. English translation by W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery, in A. Einstein, The Principle of Relativity, Methuen, London, 1923. Reprint ed., Dover, New York, 1951.Google Scholar
  26. Einstein, A., Podolsky, B. and Rosen, N.: 1935, ‘Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?’, Physical Review 47, 777–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Feinberg, G.: 1967, ‘Possibility of Faster-Than-Light Particles’, Physical Review 159, 1089–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fine, A.: 1973, ‘Probability and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24, 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fine, A.: 1974, ‘On the Completeness of Quantum Theory’, Synthese 29, 257–289. Reprinted in P. Suppes (ed.): Logic and Probability in Quantum Mechanics, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976, pp. 249–281.Google Scholar
  30. Fine, A.: 1977, ‘Conservation, the Sum Rule and Confirmation’, Philosophy of Science 44, 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fine, A.: 1979, ‘Counting Frequencies: A Primer for Quantum Realists’, Synthese 42, 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fine, A.: 1980, ‘Correlations and Physical Locality’, forthcoming in P. D. Asquith and R. N. Giere (eds.), PSA: 1980, Vol II (Proceedings of the 1980 Biennal Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association), Philosophy of Science Association, East Lansing.Google Scholar
  33. Fitchard, E. E.: 1979, ‘Proposed Experimental Test of Wave Packet Reduction and the Uncertainty Principle’, Foundations of Physics 9, 525–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fox, R.: 1972, ‘Tachyons and Quantum Statistics’, Physical Review D5, 329–331.Google Scholar
  35. Fox, R., Kuper, C. G., and Lipson, S. G.: 1970, ‘Faster-than-Light Group Velocities and Causality Violation’, Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series A, 316, pp. 515–523.Google Scholar
  36. Ghirardi, G. C;, Rimini, A., and Weber, T.: 1980, ‘A General Argument against Super- luminal Transmission through the Quantum Mechanical Measurement Process’, Lettere al Nuovo Cimento 27, 293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grünbaum, A.: 1973, Philosophical Problems of Space and Time, 2nd ed., D. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  38. Heisenberg, W.: 1958, Physics and Philosophy: The Revolution in Modern Science, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Heywood, P. and Redhead, M. L. G.: 1982, ‘Nonlocality and the Kochen-Specker Paradox’, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  40. Kamoi, K. and Kamefuchi, S.: 1978, Tachyons as Viewed from Quantum Field Theory’, in E. Recami (ed.), Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 159–167.Google Scholar
  41. Kar, K. C.: 1970, ‘Relativity in the Acoustical World’, Indian Journal of Theoretical Physics 18, 1–11.Google Scholar
  42. Kochen, S. and Specker, E.: 1967, ‘The Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics’, Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics 17, 59–87. Reprinted in C. A. Hooker (ed.), The Logico-Algebraic Approach to Quantum Mechanics, Vol. I: Historical Evolution, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1975, pp. 293–328.Google Scholar
  43. Lacey, H. M.: 1968, ‘The Causal Theory of Time: A Critique of Grünbaum’s Version’, Philosophy of Science 35, 332–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lamehi-Rachti, M. and Mittig, W.: 1976, ‘Quantum Mechanics and Hidden Variables: A Test of Bell’s Inequality by the Measurement of the Spin Correlation in Low- Energy Proton-Proton Scattering’, Physical Review D14, 2543–2555.Google Scholar
  45. Lewis, D.: 1973, Counterfactuals, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  46. Lewis, D.: 1979, ‘Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow’, Nous 13, 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mackie, J. L.: 1973, Truth, Probability, and Paradox, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  48. McKnight, J. L.: 1958, ‘An Extended Latency Interpretation of Quantum Mechanical Measurement’, Philosophy of Science 25, 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malament, D.: 1977, ‘Causal Theories of Time and the Conventionality of Simultaneity’, Nous 11, 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Margenau, H.: 1954, ‘Advantages and Disadvantahes of Various Interpretations of the Quantum Theory’, Physics Today 7, 6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maund, J. B.: 1979, ‘Tachyons and Causal Paradoxes’, Foundations of Physics 9 557–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mellor, D. H.: 1971, The Matter of Chance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  53. Moyal, J. E.: 1949, ‘Quantum Mechanics as a Statistical Theory’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 45, 99–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nelson, E.: 1967, Dynamical Theories of Brownian Motion, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.Google Scholar
  55. Newton, R. G.: 1967, ‘Causality Effects of Particles that Travel Faster than Light’, Physical Review 162, 1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Park, J. L. and Margenau, H.: 1968, ‘Simultaneous Measurability in Quantum Theory’, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 1, 211–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parmentola, J. A. and Yee, D. D. H.: 1971, ‘Peculiar Properties of Tachyon Signals’, Physical Review D4 1912–1915.Google Scholar
  58. Peres, A.: 1978, ‘Unperformed Experiments Have no Results’, American Journal of Physics 46, 745–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pirani, F. A. E.: 1970, ‘Noncausal Behaviour of Classical Tachyons’ Physical Review Dl, 3224–3225.Google Scholar
  60. Podlaha, M. and Navrátil, E.: 1966, ‘On the Linearity of the Lorentz Transformation’, Acta Physica Austriaca 24, 99–100.Google Scholar
  61. Podlaha, M. and Navrátil, E.: 1967, ‘Formulation of the Axioms for Derivingthe Lorentz Transformations, Galileo Transformations and Palacios Transformations’, Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisica y Naturalis de Madrid 61, 555–561.Google Scholar
  62. Popper, K. R.: 1934, Logik der Forschung, Springer-Verlag, Vienna. English translation: The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London, 1959.Google Scholar
  63. Popper, K. R.: 1959, ‘The Propensity Interpretation of Probability’, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10, 24–42.Google Scholar
  64. Popper, K. R.: 1967, ‘Quantum Mechanics without “The Observer”’, in M. Bunge (ed.), Quantum Theory and Reality, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp. 7–44.Google Scholar
  65. Recami, E.: 1978, ‘An Introductory View about Superluminal Frames and Tachyons’, in E. Recami (ed.), Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  66. Redhead, M. L. G.: 1981, ‘Experimental Tests of the Sum Rule’, Philosophy of Science 48, 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Reichenbach, H.: 1957, The Philosophy of Space and Time, English translation by H. Reichenbach and J. Freund, Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Rolnick, W. B.: 1969, ‘Implications of Causality for Faster-than-Light Matter’, Physical Review 183, 1105–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rolnick, W. B.: 1972, ‘Tachyons and the Arrow of Causality’, Physical Review D6, 2300–2301.Google Scholar
  70. Salmon, W. C.: 1915, Space, Time and Motion, Dickenson, Encino, California.Google Scholar
  71. She, C. Y. and Heffner, H.: 1966, ‘Simultaneous Measurement of Noncommuting Observables’, Physical Review 152, 1103–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shimony, A.: 1978, ‘Metaphysical Problems in the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics’, International Philosophical Quarterly 18, 3–17.Google Scholar
  73. Sjodin, T.: 1979, ‘Synchronization in Special Relativity and Related Theories’, II Nuovo Cimento 51B, 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Slote, M. A.: 1978, ‘Time in Counterfactuals’, The Philosophical Review 87, 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stairs, A.: 1978, Quantum Mechanics, Logic and Reality, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Western Ontario.Google Scholar
  76. Stapp, H. P.: 1971, ‘S-Matrix Interpretation of Quantum Theory’, Physical Review D3, 1303–1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tangherlini, F. R.: 1961, ‘An Introduction to the General Theory of Relativity’, Supplement Nuovo Cimento 20, 1–86.Google Scholar
  78. Tolman, R. C.: 1917, The Theory of Relativity of Motion, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  79. Van Fraassen, B.: 1973, ‘Semantic Analysis of Quantum Logic’, in C. A. Hooker (ed.), Contemporary Research in the Foundations and Philosophy of Quantum Theory, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 80–113.Google Scholar
  80. Wigner, E. P.: 1970, ‘On Hidden Variables and Quantum Mechanical Probabilities’, American Journal Journal of Physics 38, 1005–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zahar, E.: 1977, ‘Mach, Einstein and the Rise of Modern Science’, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 28, 195–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Redhead

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations