Acoustical Imaging: Theory Limitations and Relationships to other Imaging Modalities

  • P. N. T. Wells
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSE, volume 61)


The basic physics of ultrasound is reviewed. Ultrasonic diagnosis employs frequencies in the low megahertz range which is generated and detected by piezoelectric transducers. Pulse-echo information may be displayed as an A-scan, an M-mode recording, as a two-dimensional B-scan (often obtained in real time), or as a C-scan. The Doppler effect gives rise to audible shift frequencies in ultrasound reflected from moving structures. This can be used for flow studies and for imaging. Ultrasonic methods, which are generally limited to the study of soft tissues, provide information which may be complementary to that obtainable with other diagnostic techniques; but they compete for financial resources, and the technologies are continuously changing.


Characteristic Impedance Ultrasonic Pulse Doppler Shift Frequency Ultrasonic Imaging Ultrasonic Field 
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    Robinson, D.E. and Knight, P.C. “Computer reconstruction techniques in compound scan pulse-echo imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging 3 (1981) 217-234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Wells, P.N.T. and Halliwell, M. “Speckle in ultrasonic imaging.” Ultrasonics 5 (1981) 225-229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Wells, P.N.T. “Ultrasonic Doppler equipment.” In: Medical Physics of CT and Ultrasound, ed. Fullerton, G.D. and Zagzebski, J.A. (New York: American Institute of Physics, 1980, 343-366).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. N. T. Wells
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical PhysicsBristol General HospitalBristolUK

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