• Knud Kristensen
  • Elisabeth Nørbygaard
Part of the Developments in Nuclear Medicine book series (DNUM, volume 4)


The nature of the radioactive substances used in medicine particularly their short physical half-lives and the need for labelling of patient material requires that part of the production process of radiopharmaceuticals takes place at the hospitals. As for the industrial production this requires laboratory facilities designed to protect the working staff against radiation and to protect the product against contamination with microorganisms or other foreign substances. The traditional requirements of pharmacy and radiation protection may lead to conflicts. At the same time traditional pharmaceutical techniques designed for the production of large batches of sterile products to be used over a long period of time may be felt as “overkilling” in the case of a simple closed-procedure-preparation of a Tc-99m labelled product to be used within the next few hours. Discussion of these questions started more than 10 years ago and took place on many occassions during the seventies. The European Joint Committee on Radiopharmaceuticals of the European Society of Nuclear Medicine and the Society of Nuclear Medicine, Europe took up this question with the aim of giving advice on the subject. It was, however, soon realized that such advice if it should cover the situation in european countries would be very general and add very little to already existing publications in the field. It was therefore decided to take up the subject at the symposium and to have experts prepare reviews on this difficult aspects and also to review the existing recommandations. The following 3 chapters covers the present status.


Radiation Dose Nuclear Medicine Radiation Protection Radioactive Substance Foreign Substance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Knud Kristensen
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Nørbygaard
    • 1
  1. 1.The Isotope-PharmacyThe National Board of HealthCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations