Human Pharmacology — Pharmacokinetics
Human Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics are conducted in services of Nuclear Medicine when new radiopharmaceuticals have passed the experimental step in vitro and on animals. From the results on animals, physicians try to extrapolate to humans, healthy volunteers and patients. They compare the new radiopharmaceuticals to well-known tracers and, in some way, to other diagnostic or therapeutic methods, for instance, new brain radiopharmaceuticals, to pertechnetate, x-ray scanner and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of the human assay is to establish the performance of the new radioactive drug, to specify the pathological indications, to delineate the limits of use, to ascertain the reproducibility of the results in different hands, to detect any side-effects and to give data for the calculation of radiation doses. The human assay needs an approval from committees for ethics and safety. Seen from the radiopharmaceuticals producer point of view, human pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of these tracers are a crucial test upon which the future of the drug will depend. Performed in hospitals, independently from the producer research department, the assays of human pharmacology and pharmacokinetics correspond to phases I and II as largely accepted nowadays. In this paper we shall discuss the organization of the assays, we shall explain the main parameters of pharmacokinetics and we shall review the literature of the most important radiopharmaceuticals. We shall also discuss the future of these assays in view of the advancement of new methods.
KeywordsCompartment Model Iminodiacetic Acid Effective Renal Plasma Flow Local Cerebral Blood Flow Methylene Diphosphonate
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