Advertisement

Photodegradation of PVC

  • Christian Decker

Abstract

Most commercial polymers undergo chemical and physical modifications when they are exposed for a long time to the combined action of sunlight, atmospheric oxygen, moisture and pollutants. The extent of this degradation depends primarily on the presence within the polymer of light-absorbing structures. Polymers containing aromatic or carbonyl groups in their monomer unit are likely to absorb the terrestrial sunlight (wavelength λ>290nm) and usually become photosensitive materials. On the other hand, some polymers that do not possess in their structural unit any chromophore absorbing above 250 nm, like polyolefins, still appear to be degraded by sunlight during outdoor exposure. Since a basic law in photochemistry states that a photochemical reaction can only occur if light has been absorbed, it implies that those polymers must contain chromophore groups absorbing the solar radiations, either as external impurities or as functional groups incorporated into the polymer backbone.

Keywords

Quantum Yield Chain Scission Outdoor Exposure Natural Weathering Polyene Sequence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Owen, E. D. A.C.S. Symp. Ser., 25 (1976), 208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Close, L. G., Gilbert, R. D. and Fornes, R. E. Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 8 (1977), 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wirth, H. O. and Andreas, H. Pure Appl. Chem., 49 (1977), 627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr. Adv. Chem. Ser., 169 (1978), 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McKellar, J. F. and Allen, N. S. Photochemistry of Man-M ade Polymers, Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London, 1979, 95.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Braun, D. Pure Appl. Chem., 53 (1981), 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr. A.C.S. Symp. Ser., 151 (1981), 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Owen, E. D. A.C.S. Symp. Ser., 151 (1981), 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Owen, E. D. In: Developments in Polymer Photochemistry, N. S. Allen (Ed.), Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London, 1982, 165.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Turro, N. Modem Molecular Photochemistry, Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, California, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kasha, M. Disc. Farad. Soc., 9 (1950), 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calvert, J. G. and Pitts, J. N. Photochemistry, John Wiley, New York, 1966.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murov, S. L. Handbook of Photochemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Searle, N. Z. and Hirt, R. C. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 55 (1965), 1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr., Schilling, F. C., Abbas, K. B., Cais, R. E. and Bovey, F. A. Macromol., 12 (1979), 556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caraculacu, A., Buruiana, E. C. and Robila, G. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 16 (1978), 2741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boissel, J. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 21 (1977), 855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Braun, D., Bezdadea, E., Holzer, G. and Sonderhof, D. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 104 (1982), 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sondheimer, F., Ben Efraim, D. A. and Wolovsky, R. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 83 (1961), 1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Daniels, V. D. and Rees, H. H. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 12 (1974), 2115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gibb, W. H. and MacCallum, J. R. Europ. Polym. J., 10 (1974), 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phillips, R. W. and Volman, D. H. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 91 (1969), 3418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Decker, C. and Balandier, M. Polym. Photochem., 1 (1981), 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kwei, K. P. S. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 7 (1969), 1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balandier, M. and Decker, C. Eur. Polym. J., 14 (1978), 995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rabek, J. F., Canbäck, G., Lucky, J. and Rånby, B. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 14 (1976), 1447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rånby, B., Rabek, J. F. and Canbäck, G. J. J. Macromol. Sci. Chem., 12 (1978), 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang, N. L., Liutkus, J. and Haubenstock, H. A.C.S. Symp. Ser., 142 (1980), 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Torikai, A., Tsuruta, H. and Fueki, K. Polym. Photochem., 2 (1982), 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mayer, Z. J. Macromol. Sci., Rev. Macromol. Chem., 10 (1974), 263.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr. and Edelson, D. Macromol., 12 (1979), 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Riechi, A., Grimm, A. and Mucke, H. Kunststoffe, 52 (1962), 265.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Geddes, W. C. Eur. Polym. J., 3 (1967), 267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hartman, A. Kolloid Z., 149 (1956), 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baum, B. Soc. Plast. Eng. J., 17 (1961), 71.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Winkler, D. E. J. Polym. Sci., 35 (1959), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Owen, E. D. and Williams, J. I. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 12 (1974), 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reinish, R. F., Gloria, H. R. and Wilson, D. E. A.C.S. Div. Polym. Chem. Preprints, 7 (1966), 372.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reinish, R. F., Gloria, H. R. and Androes, G. M. In: Photochemistry of Macromolecules, R. F. Reinish (Ed.), Plenum, New York, 1970, 185.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Verdu, J., Michel, A. and Sonderhof, D. Eur. Polym. J., 16 (1980), 689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Decker, C. and Balandier, M. J. Photochem., 15 (1981), 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Decker, C. and Balandier, M. Eur. Polym. J., 18 (1982), 1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bauer, J. and Sabel, A. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 47 (1975), 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Braun, D. and Wolf, M. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 70 (1978), 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ratti, L., Visani, F. and Ragazzani, M. Eur. Polym. J., 9 (1973), 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kawai, W. and Ichihashi, T. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 12 (1974), 201, 1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Osawa, Z. and Aiba, M. Polym. Photochem., 2 (1982), 397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kenyon, A. S. Nat. Bur. Stand. (US) Circ., 525 (1953), 81.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kagiya, U. T., Takemoto, K. and Hagiwara, M. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. Appl. Polym. Symp., 35 (1979), 95.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Owen, E. D. and Bailey, R. J. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 10 (1972), 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Owen, E. D. and Williams, J. I. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 11 (1973), 905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Golub, M. A. J. Phys. Chem., 75 (1971), 1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Harriman, A. and Rockett, B. W. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin 2, 5 (1974), 485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Braun, D. and Kull, S. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 86 (1980), 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gibb, W. H. and MacCullum, J. R. Eur. Polym. J., 10 (1974), 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Braun, D. and Bezdadea, E. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 99 (1981), 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Carlsson, D. J. and Wiles, D. M. J. Radiation Curing, 2 (1975), 2.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carlsson, D. J. and Wiles, D. M. J. Macromol. Sci., Rev. Macromol. Chem., C14 (1976), 65.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marechal, J. C. J. Macromol. Sci. Chem., 12 (1978), 609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Scott, G., Taman, M. and Vyvoda, J. Eur. Polym. J., 14 (1978), 1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cooray, B. B. and Scott, G. Polym. Deg. Stab., 3 (1981), 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Scott, G. Adv. Chem. Ser., 169 (1978), 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ng, H. G. and Guillet, J. E. Macromol., 11 (1978), 937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Geuskens, G. and David, C. Pure Appl. Chem., 51 (1979), 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr., Schilling, F. C., Abbås, K. B., Plitz, I. M., Hartless, R. L. and Bovey, F. A. Macromol., 12 (1979), 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr., Schilling, F. C., Abbås, K. B., Cais, R. E. and Bovey, F. A. Macromol., 12 (1979), 556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr., Schilling, F. C., Plitz, I. M., Cais, R. E., Freed, D. J. and Bovey, F. A. Preprints Third. Int. Symp. on Poly(vinyl chloride), Cleveland, 1980, 58.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gooden, R. and Hellman, Y. Proc. 28th Macro. IUPAC Symposium, Amherst, 1982, 303.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kamal, M. R., El-Kaissy, M. M. and Avedesian, M. M. J. Appl Polym. Sci., 16 (1972), 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rabek, J. F., Shur, Y. J. and Rånby, B. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 13 (1975), 1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kaminska, A. and Kaczmarek, H. Polymery (Warsaw), 27 (1982), 209.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rabek, J. F., Skowronski, T. A. and Rånby, B. Polymer, 21 (1980), 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Williams, G. E. and Gerrard, D. L. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 21 (1983), 1491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Joffe, Z. and Rånby, B. J. Appl. Sci., Appl. Polym. Symp., 35 (1979), 307.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Owen, E. D. Organ. Coat. Appl Polym. Polym. Sci. Proc., 46 (1982), 641.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mori, F., Koyama, M. and Oki, Y. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 64 (1977), 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rabek, J. F., Canbäck, G. and Rånby, B. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 21 (1977), 2211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Foster, R. J., Whitling, P. H., Mellor, J. M. and Phillips, D. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 22 (1978), 1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Allen, N. S., McKellar, J. F., Phillips, G. O. and Wood, D. G. M. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 12 (1974), 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Davidson, R. S. and Meek, R. R. Polym. Photochem., 2 (1982), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ferguson, W. J. Kunststoffe, 73 (1983), 36.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Braun, D. and Kuli, S. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 85 (1980), 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gibb, W. H. and MacCallum, J. R. Eur. Polym. J., 7 (1971), 1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gibb, W. H. and MacCallum, J. R. Eur. Polym. J., 8 (1972), 1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Braun, D., Bezdadea, E. and Holzer, G. Angew. Makro. Chem., 106 (1982), 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Corsato-Arnaldi, A., Palma, G. and Talamini, G. Mat. Plast., 32 (1966), 50.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Verdu, J. J. Macromol. Sci. Chem., 12 (1978), 551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Braun, D. and Wolf, M. Kunst. Forschrittsber., 2 (1976), 13.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Starnes, W. H., Jr. and Edelson, D. Macromol., 12 (1979), 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Miller, A. A. J. Phys. Chem., 63 (1959), 1755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Decker, C., Balandier, M. and Faure, J. Preprints IUPAC 27th Int. Symp. Macromol., Strasbourg, Vol. I (1981), 445.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kharash, M. S. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 73 (1951), 632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Friedlina, R. Kh. Chapter 6 in: Advances in Free-Radical Chemistry, Vol. 1, G. H. Williams (Ed.), Logos, London, 1965.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Owen, E. D. and Read, R. L. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 17 (1979), 2719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Brauman, S. and Chen, I. J. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 19 (1981), 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Owen, E. D. and Read, R. L. Eur. Polym. J., 15 (1979), 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kwei, K. P. S. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 12 (1968), 1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sobue, H., Tabata, Y. and Tajima, Y. J. Polym. Sci., 27 (1958), 596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sobue, H. and Tajima, Y. J. Chem. Ind. Tokyo, 62 (1959), 1149.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ulinska, A. and Kaminska, A. Polimery, 11 (1966), 522.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Charlesby, A. Atomic Radiation and Polymers, Pergamon, Oxford, 1960.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Charlesby, A. and Pinner, S. H. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A249 (1959), 367.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rånby, B., Rabek, J. F. and Canbäck, G. J. Macromol. Sci. Chem., 12 (1978), 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Owen, E. D., Pasha, I. and Moayyedi, F. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 25 (1980), 2331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bailey, R. J. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales, 1972.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Decker, C. and Balandier, M. Makromol. Chem., 183 (1982), 1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    David, C. and Baeyens-Volant, D. Eur. Polym. J., 14 (1978), 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Decker, C. and Balandier, M. J. Photochem., 15 (1981), 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rabek, J. F., Rånby, B., Östensson, B. and Fodin, P. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 24 (1979), 2407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Martin, K. G. and Tilley, R. I. Br. Polym. J., 3 (1971), 36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kohn, P., Marechal, C. and Verdu, J. J. Anal. Chem., 51 (1979), 1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Marks, G. C. and Butters, G. J. Macromol. Sci. Chem., A12 (1978), 569.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nagy, T. G., Kelen, T., Turcsanyi, B. and Tudos, F. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 15 (1977), 853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pochan, J. M., Gibson, H. W. and Bailey, F. C. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed., 18 (1980), 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Scott, G. and Tahan, M. Eur. Polym. J., 11 (1975), 535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Martin, K. G. and Tilley, R. I. Br. Polym. J., 1 (1969), 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rabek, J. F., Canbäck, G. and Rånby, B. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Appl. Polym. Symp., 35 (1979), 299.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Scott, G. and Tahan, M. Eur. Polym. J., 13 (1977), 989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Decker, C. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 20 (1976), 3321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kryszewski, M. and Mucha, M. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed., 5 (1967), 1095.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Saito, O. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 13 (1968), 198, 1451, 1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mori, F., Koyama, M. and Oki, Y. Angew. Makromol. Chem., 75 (1979), 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mitani, K. and Ogata, T. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 18 (1974), 3205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Scott, G. Adv. Chem. Ser., 169 (1978), 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Cooray, B. B. and Scott, G. Polym. Deg. Stab., 3 (1981), 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Scott, G., Tahan, M. and Vyvoda, J. Eur. Polym. J., 15 (1979), 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rabek, J. F., Skowronski, T. A. and Ranby, B. Polymer, 21 (1980), 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gibb, W. H. and MacCallum, J. R. Eur. Polym. J., 9 (1973), 771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Osawa, Z. and Aiba, M. Polym. Photochem., 2 (1982), 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Stenberg, V. I., Wang, C. T. and Kulevsky, N. J. Org. Chem., 35 (1970), 1774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rånby, B. and Rabek, J. F. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Appl. Polym. Symp., 35 (1979), 243.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Oki, Y., Mori, F. and Tanaka, A. Kinzohn Hyomen Gijutsu, 24 (1973), 329.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Verdu, J. Trib. CEBEDEAU, 27 (1974), 360.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Decker, C. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 28 (1983), 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hirayama, S., Foster, R. J., Mellor, J. M., Whitling, P. H, Grant, K.R. and Phillips, D. Eur. Polym. J., 14 (1978), 679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bellenger, V., Verdu, J. and Carette, L. B. Preprints, Third Int. Symp. on Poly(vinyl chloride), Cleveland, 1980, 297.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Manfredi, M. and Pacelli, E. Mat. Plast. Elast., 36 (1970), 647.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Aoki, H., Yoshida, A. and Suzuki, T. Zairyo, 21 (1972), 309.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Roux, G. and Huet, J. M. Materiaux et Techniques (April 1979), 139.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Pabiot, J. and Verdu, J. Polym. Eng. Sci., 21 (1981), 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kubota, H., Suzuki, S., Nishimura, O., Hattori, S., Yoshikawa, K. and Shirota, T. Kenhyu Hohohu—Kogyo Gijustsuin, 2 (1981), 23.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Levai, G., Ocskay, G. and Meszlenyi, A. Kunst. Fortschr. Ber., 7 (1980), 23.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Geuskens, G. and David, C. Pure Appl. Chem., 51 (1979), 2385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Flory, P. J. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 67 (1945), 2049.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Scott, G. and Tahan, M. Eur. Polym. J., 13 (1977), 997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Summers, J. W., Ismer, J. D. and Rabinovitch, E. R. Polym. Eng. Sci., 20 (1980), 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Roux, G., Revirand, G., Rochas, G. and Giraud, D. Cahier Centre Sci. Techn. Bâtiment, 214 (1980), cah. 1677.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nishimura, O., Kubota, H. and Suzuki, S. Hokkaido Kogyo Kaihatsu Shikensho Hokoku, 24 (1981), 115, 145.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Price, T. R. and Fox, R. B. A.C.S. Organ. Coat. Plast. Chem., 26 (1966), 242.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Jacob, R. G.F.P., Meeting on Aging and Stabilization of PVC, Lyons, 1981.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hill, C. A. S. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 27 (1982), 3313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Roux, G. and Eurin, P. A. J. Macromol. Sci. Phys., B20 (1981), 505.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Decker, C. Eur. Polym. J., 20 (1984), 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Russell, G. A. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 79 (1957), 3871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Allara, D. L., Mill, T., Hendry, D. G. and Mayo, F. R. Adv. Chem. Ser., 76 (1968), 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Decker, C. and Mayo, F. R. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 11 (1973), 2847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Bell, E. R., Raley, J. H., Rust, F. F., Seybold, F. H. and Vaughan, N. E. Disc. Faraday Soc., 10 (1951), 242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Decker
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Photochimie Générale associé au CNRSEcole Nationale Supérieure de ChimieMulhouseFrance

Personalised recommendations