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Porifera

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Abstract

The brilliant orange, red, yellow and purple pigments of many sponges are carotenoids. They were first detected as lipochromes towards the end of the last century [1–3]; this early work was summarized by Palmer [4]. However, it was not until 1931 that a study of the visible absorption spectra of sponge extracts clearly indicated the presence of carotenoids [4, 5, 6]. In 1935 the first chemical characterization of a sponge carotenoid was made by Karrer & Solmssen [7] who obtained astacene (2.1) from Axinella crista-galli. The naturally occurring pigment is in fact astaxanthin (1.1); it is now known that astacene is an oxidative artefact. From 1935 onwards many new and unexpected pigments have been unequivocally identified in sponges and relatively recently a wide survey using modern analytical techniques has been undertaken [8].

Keywords

Visible Absorption Spectrum Wide Survey Purple Pigment Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium West African Coast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© T. W. Goodwin 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LiverpoolUK

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