Advertisement

Inorganic Oxide-Attached Metal Catalysts

  • Y. Iwasawa
Chapter
Part of the Catalysis by Metal Complexes book series (CMCO, volume 7)

Abstract

The heterogenization of homogeneous catalysts has been a very active and attractive area of research. From an industrial viewpoint, this could provide an ideal method for combining the advantages, and simultaneously avoiding the disadvantages, of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Furthermore, not only does this type of research provide potential preparations of new types of catalyst systems with specific properties quite different from homogeneous catalysts, but it also allows the development of chemistry in the boundary between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The use of such chemically and structurally controllable surface systems rather than the more conventional supported catalysts with heterogeneous metal centers, can lead to novel information on the origin of catalysis as well as providing methods for the future design of intriguing catalysts when studied in combination with modern physical techniques for surface characterization.

Keywords

Metal Catalyst Transition Metal Complex Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Inorganic Oxide Olefin Metathesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. P. Collman: Acc. Chem. Res. 1, 136 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Ugo (ed.): Aspects of Homogeneous Catalysis, Vol. 2, Reidel, Dordrecht/Boston (1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. R. Hartley and P. N. Vezey: Adv. Organometal. Chem. 15, 189 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    a) Yu. I. Yermakov, B. N. Kuznetsov and V. A. Zakharov: Catalysis by Supported Complexes, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1981); (b) M. S. Scurrell: in Catalysis (eds. C. Kemball and D. A. Dowden ), The Chemical Society, London (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Mazzei, W. Marconi and M. Riocci: J. Mol. Catal 9, 381 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. L. Murrell: in Advanced Materials in Catalysis (eds. J. J. Burton and R. L. Garten), p. 235, Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. H. Brubaker, Jr., E. S. Chandresekaran, C. Gibbons, R. H. Grubbs and L. C. Kroll: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 2128 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Jackson, J. Raddlesden, D. J. Thompson and R. Whelan: J. Organometal Chem. 125, 57 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. E. Leyden and W. Collins (eds.): p. 333, Gordon and Breach, New York/London/ Paris (1980).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yu. I. Yermakov, B. N. Kuznetsov, Yu. P. Grabovski and A. N. Startzev: J. Mol Catal 1,93 (1975/76).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Skupinski and S. Malinowski: J. Mol Catal 4, 95 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    a) D. G. H. Ballard: Adv. Catal 23, 263 (1973); (b) J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 13, 2191 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    a) Yu. I. Yermakov: J. Mol Catal 21, 35 (1983); (b) Yu. I. Yermakov and V. Zakharov: Adv. Catal 24, 173 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. J. Karol, G. L. Karapinka, C. Wu, A. W. Dow, R. N. Johnson and W. L. Carrick: J. Polym. Sci., Part A-1 10, 2621 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. J. Karol, C. Wu, W. T. Reichle and N. J. Maraschin: J Catal 60, 68 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. S. Piper, F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson: J Inorg. Nucl Chem. 1, 165 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Davison, J. A. McCleverty and G. Wilkinson: J. Chem. Soc. 1133 (1963).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. R. W. P. Wild, G. Gubitosa and H. H. Britzinger: J. Organometal Chem. 148, 73 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Czakova and M. Capka: J. Mol Catal 11,313(1981).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. k. Przhevalskaya, D. B. Furman, U. A. Shrets, S. S. Zhokovskii, T. M. Kharitonova, G. N. Bondarenko, A. M. Taber, V. B. Kazanskii, O. V. Bragin, I. V. Kalechits and V. E. Vasserberg: Kinet. Katal 19, 1036, 1283 (1978).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. V. Bakulina, Zh. L. Dykh, L. I. Lafer, V. I. Yakerson, A. M. Taber, Yu. S. Mardashev, I. V. Kalechits and A. M. Rubinshtein: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim. 251 (1977).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Iwasawa and N. Ito: to be published.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. W. Studer and G. L. Schrader: J. Mol Catal 2, 223 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    a) T. Castrills, H. Knözinger, J. Lieto and M. Wolf: Inorg. Chim. Acta 44, L239 (1980); (b) H. P. Boehm and H. Knözinger: in Catalysis, Vol. 4, (eds. J. R. Anderson and M. Boudart) pp. 39-128, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1983); (c) W. N. Delgass, G. L. Haller, R. Kellerman and J. H. Lunsford: Spectroscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. H. Little: Infrared Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Species, Academic Press, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. L. Hair: Infrared Spectroscopy in Surface Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. H. Amberg: in Infrared Spectroscopy and the Solid-Gas Interface (ed. E. A. Flood), p. 869, Marcel Dekker, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. V. Kiselev and V. I. Lygin: Infrared Spectra of Surface Compounds, Wiley, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Pritchard and T. Catterick: ‘Infrared Spectroscopy’, in Experimental Methods in Catalytic Research (eds. R. B. Anderson and P. T. Dawson ), p. 281, Academic Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. N. Delgass, G. L. Haller, R. Kellerman and J. H. Lunsford: Spectroscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. L. Angell: in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (eds. J. R. Ferraro and L. J. Basile), pp. 1–36, Academic Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. A. Egerton and A. H. Hardin: Catal Rev. Sci. Eng. 11, 1 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. P. Cooney, G. Curthoys and T. T. Nguyen: Adv. Catal 24, 293 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. J. Hendra and M. Fleischmann: ‘Raman Spectroscopy at Surfaces’, in Topics in Surface Chemistry (eds. E. Kay and P. S. Bagus ), Plenum Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. A. Morrow: in Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Surface Species, ACS Symp. Ser. No. 137, p. 119, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC (1980).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. Payen, M. C. Dhamelincourt, P. Dhamelincourt, J. Grimblot and J. P. Bonnelle: Appl. Spectrosc. 36, 30 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Ibach, H. Hopster and B. Sexton: Appl Surf. Sci. 1, 1 (1977).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. Ibach and D. L. Mills: Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Surface Vibrations, Academic Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    L. H. Bubois, P. K. Hansma and G. A. Somorjai: Appl Surf Sci. 6, 173 (1980).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. H. Weinberg: Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 29, 115 (1978).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. E. Evans and W. H. Weinberg: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 2548 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. G. Walmsley: ‘Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy’, in Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbates (ed. R. F. Willis ), p. 67, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1980).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    W. N. Delgass, G. L. Haller, R. Kellerman and J. H. Lunsford: Spectroscopy in Heterogeneous Catalysis, Academic Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    K. Klier: Catal Rev. Sci. Eng. 1, 207 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. E. Jones and K. Klier: Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 2, 1 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    W. W. Wendlandt and H. G. Hecht: Reflectance Spectroscopy, Interscience, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    E. J. Bowen (ed.): Luminescence in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, London (1968).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    G. T. Pott and W. H. J. Stork: Catal Rev. Sci. Eng. 12, 163 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    S. Coluccia, M. Deane and A. J. Tench: Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Catal London (1976), Vol. 1, p. 171, The Chemical Society, London (1977).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. M. Gritscov, V. A. Shvets and V. B. Kazansky: Chem. Phys. Lett. 35, 511 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Y. Iwasawa and S. Ogasawara: Bull Chem. Soc. Jpn. 53, 3709 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    D. E. O’Reilly: Adv. Catal 12, 31 (1960).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. J. Kokes: ‘Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy’, in Experimental Methods in Catalytic Research (ed. R. B. Anderson ), pp. 436–475, Academic Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. H. Lunsford: Adv. Catal 22, 265 (1972).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    B. D. Flockhart: ‘Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Adsorbed Species’, in Surface and Defect Properties of Solids, Vol. 2, pp. 69–96, The Chemical Society, London (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    E. R. Andrew: in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Rapidly Rotating Solids in Magnetic Resonance (eds. C. K. Coogan, N. S. Ham, S. N. Struart, J. R. Pilbrow and G. V. H. Wilson, pp. 163–176, Plenum, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    U. Haeberlen: High Resolution NMR in Solids, Academic Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. Mehring: High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy in Solids, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1976).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    D. Slotfeldt-Ellingsen and H. A. Resing: J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2204 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. L. Mössbauer: Z. Phys. 151, 124 (1958).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Sinfelt: Acc. Chem. Res. 10, 15 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    H. M. Garger and M. C. Hobson: Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 11, 117 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    W. Jones: in Characterization of Catalysts (eds. J. M. Thomas and R. M. Lambert), p. 114, Wiley, Chichester/New York (1980).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    J. A. Dumesic and H. Topsoe: Adv. Catal. 26, 121 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. W. Roberts: Adv. Catal 29, 55 (1980).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Edmonds: in Characterization of Catalysts (eds. J. M. Thomas and R. M. Lambert), p. 30, Wiley, Chichester/New York (1980).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    T. A. Carlson: Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopy, Plenum Press, New York/ London (1975).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. E. Sayers, E. A. Stern and F. W. Lytle: Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1204 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    G. H. Via, J. H. Sinfelt and F. W. Lytle: J. Chem. Phys. 71, 690 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. B. Greegor and F. W. Lytle: J. Catal 63, 476 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    A. Bianconi, L. Incoccia and S. Stipcich (eds.): EXAFS and Near Edge Structure, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1983).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. W. Joyner, A. D. Cox and R. F. Pettifer: in Characterization of Catalysts (eds. J. M. Thomas and R. M. Lambert), pp. 237-283, Wiley, Chichester/New York (1980).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. Benninghoven: Critical Reviews in Solid State Sciences, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1978).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    W. L. Baun: in Industrial Applications of Surface Analysis (eds. L. A. Casper and C. J. Powell), ACS Symp. Ser. No. 199, pp. 121–141, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC (1982).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    a) C. R. Brundle: ref. 74, pp. 13–32; (b) J. M. Poate and T. M. Buck. Brundle: ref. 74, pp. 13–32; (b) J. M. Poate and T. M. Buck: ‘Ion Scattering Spectroscopy’, in Experimental Methods in Catalytic Research (eds. R. B. Anderson and P. T. Dawson ), pp. 175–210, Academic Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    R. J. Cvetanovic and Y. Amenomiya: Adv. Catal 17, 103 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    E. E. Ibok and D. F. Ollis: J. Catal 66, 391 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    S. D. Robertson, B. D. McNicol, J. H. de Baas, S. C. Kloet and J. W. Jenkins: J. Catal 37, 424 (1975).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    A. Brenner, D. A. Huucul and S. J. Hardwick: Inorg. Chem. 18, 1478 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    P. B. Hirsch, A. Howie, R. B. Nicholson, D. W. Pashley and M. J. Whelan: Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals, Krieger, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    D. B. Holt, M. D. Muir, P. R. Grant and I. M. Boswarva: Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy, Academic Press, London (1975).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. Howie: in Characterization of Catalysts (eds. J. M. Thomas and R. M. Lambert), p. 89, Wiley, Chichester/New York (1980).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    S. J. B. Reed: Electron Microprobe Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1975).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. Woldseth: X-ray Energy Spectrometry, Kevex Corporation, Burlingame (1973).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Jenkins and J. L. De Vries: Worked Examples in X-ray Analysis, Springer Verlag, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    P. Hodge and D. C. Sherrington (eds.): Polymer-Supported Reactions in Organic Synthesis, Wiley, Chichester/New York (1980).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    L. L. Murrell: in Advanced Materials in Catalysis (eds. J. J. Burton and R. L. Garten), pp. 235–265, Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    D. C. Bailey and S. H. Langer: Chem. Rev. 81, 109 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    O. Leal, D. L. Anderson, R. G. Bowman, F. Basolo and R. L. Burwell, Jr.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 5125 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Z. M. Michalska and D. E. Webster: Platinum Met. Rev. 18, 65 (1974).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. F. Wells: Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 4th Ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford (1975).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    H. P. Boehm: Adv. Catal. 16, 179 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    L. H. Little: Infrared Spectra of Adsorbed Species, Academic Press, London/New York (1966).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    M. L. Hair: Infrared Spectroscopy in Surface Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    a) J. J. Fripiat: in Soluble Silicates (ed. S. F. James, h.),ACS Symp. Ser. No. 194, p. 165, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC (1982); (b) D. E. Leyden and W. Collins (eds.): Silylated Surfaces, Gordon and Breach, New York/London/Paris (1980).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. K. Iler: The Chemistry of Silica, Wiley, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    K. K. Unger: Porous Silica, Elsevier, Amsterdam/Oxford/New York (1979).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    J. H. de Boer: Angew. Chem. 70, 389 (1958).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    H. Knözinger and P. Ratnasamy: Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 17, 31 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    See also references cited in refs. 92–98 and 249.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    H. A. Bebesi and B. H. C. Winquist: Adv. Catal. 27, 98 (1978).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    B. A. Morrow and I. A. Cody: J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1995, 1998 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    R. S. McDonald: J. Phys. Chem. 62, 1168 (1958).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    A. V. Kiselev: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 14 (1971).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    V. Y. Davydov, A. V. Kiselev and L. T. Zhuravlev: Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 2254 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. H. de Boer and J. M. Vleeskens: Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B61, 2 (1958).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    J. C. W. Chien: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93. 4675 (1971).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    H. P. Boehm: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 264 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    B. E. Wagner, J. N. Helbert and E. H. Poindexter: Surf Sci. 67, 251 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    W. K. Hall, H. P. Leftin, F. J. Cheselske and D. E. O’Reilly: J. Catal. 2, 506 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    F. J. Cheselske, W. K. Hall and W. E. Wallace: J. Phys. Chem. 63, 505 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    R. G. Haldeman and P. H. Emmett: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 2917 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    V. Y. Davydov, A. V. Kiselev, S. A. Kiselev and V. O. V. Polotnyuk: J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 74, 378 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    H. P. Boehm and R. Sappok: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 365, 152 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    V. M. Bermudez: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 3249 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    J. J. Fripiat and J. Uytterhoeven: 66, 800 (1962).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    A. H. Boonstra and C. A. H. A. Mutsaers: J. Phys. Chem. 79, 1694 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    M. L. Hair: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 60, 154 (1977).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    C. G. Armistead, A. J. Tyler, F. H. Hambleton, S. A. Mitchell and J. A. Hockey: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 3947 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    K. H. Rhee and M. R. Basila: J. Catal. 10, 243 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    M. L. Hair and W. Hertle: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2070 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    J. K. Lee and S. W. Weller: Anal Chem. 30, 1057 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    R. J. Peglar, F. H. Hambleton and J. A. Hockey: J. Catal 20, 309 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    M. Liefländer and W. Stober: Z. Naturforsch. 156, 411 (1960).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    M. Sato, T. Kanbayashi, N. Kobayashi and Y. Shima: J. Catal 7, 342 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    D. J. C. Yates, G. W. Dembinaki, W. R. Kroll and J. J. Elliot: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 911 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    H. G. Weiss, J. A. Kneight and J. Shapirs: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 1823 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    J. B. Peri and A. L. Hensley, Jr.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 2926 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    W. Hertl: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 1248, 3993 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    G. C. Pimenten and A. L. McClellan: The Hydrogen Bond, W. F. Freeman, San Francisco (1960).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    A. J. Van Rosmalen and J. C. Mol: J. Phys. Chem. 82, 2748 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    M. L. Hair and W. Hertl: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 2372 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    G. Ghiotti, E. Garrone, C. Morterra and F. Boccuzzi: J. Phys. Chem. 83, 2863 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    J. B. Peri and A. L. Hensley, Jr.: J. Phys. Chem. 70, 3168 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    F. H. Van Cauwelaert, P. A. Jacobs and J. B. Uytterhoeven: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1434 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    J. A. Hockey: J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2570 (1970).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    B. A. Morrow and I. A. Cody: J Phys. Chem. 77, 1465 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    K. Klier, J. H. Shen and A. C. Zettlemoyer: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 1458 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    V. Y. Davydov, L. T. Zhuravlev and A. V. Kiselev: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 38, 2047 (1964).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    F. H. Van Cauwelaert, F. Vermoortele and J. B. Uytterhoeven: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 66 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    W. K. Hall: Acc. Chem. Res. 8, 257 (1975).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    M. M. Mestdagh, W. E. Stone and J. J. Fripiat: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1220 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    L. B. Schreiber and R. W. Vaughan: J. Catal. 40, 226 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    C. G. Armistead and J. A. Hockey: Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 2549 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    W. Hertl and M. L. Hair: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 2181 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    L. R. Snyder and J. W. Ward: J. Phys. Chem. 70, 3941 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    J. Kunawicz, P. Jones and J. A. Hockey: Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 848 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    B. Stübner, H. Knözinger, J. Conard and J. J. Fripiat: J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1811 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    J. B. Peri and R. B. Hannan: J. Phys. Chem. 64, 1526 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    J. B. Peri: J. Phys. Chem. 69, 220 (1965).Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    J. B. Peri: Phys. Chem. 69, 211 (1965).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    A. A. Tsyganenko and V. N. Filimonov: J. Mol. Struct. 19, 579 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    A. Zecchina: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 89 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    C. Morterra, G. Ghiotti, E. Garrone and F. Boccuzzi: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 72, 2722 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    E. P. Smirnov and A. A. Tsyganenko: React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 7, 425 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    E. P. Smirnov and V. N. Filimonov: React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 7, 431 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    H. Dunken and H. Hobert: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 260, 913 (1979).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    M. R. Basila: J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2223 (1966).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    P. G. Rouchet and R. E. Sempels: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans./ 70, 2021 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    L. B. Schreiber and R. W. Vaughan: J. Catal 40, 226 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    J. B. Peri: J. Catal 41, 227 (1976).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    H. G. Weiss, J. A. Knight and I. Shapiro: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 1823 (1959); ibid., 82, 1262 (1960).Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    E. Lippmaa, M. Mägi, A. Samson, M. Tarmak and G. Engelhardt: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 4992 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. M. Thomas, L. A. Bursill, E. A. Lodge, A. K. Cheetham and C. A. Fyfe: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 276 (1981).Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    G. Engelhardt, U. Lohse, A. Samson, M. Mägi, M. Tarmak and E. Lippmaa: Zeolites 2, 59 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    M. T. Melchior, D. E. W. Vaughan and A. J. Jacobson: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 4859 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    L. A. Bursill, E. A. Lodge, J. M. Thomas and A. K. Cheetham: J. Phys. Chem. 85, 2409 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    J. B. Uytterhoeven, L. G. Christner and W. K. Hall: J. Phys. Chem. 69, 2117 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    J. W. Ward: “Infrared Studies of Zeolite Surfaces and Surface Reactionsin Zeolite Chemistry and Catalysis (ed. J. A. Rabo), ACS Monog. No. 1 71, pp. 118–284, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC (1976).Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    J. W. Ward: Adv. Chem. Ser. 101, 380 (1971).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    D. Freude, D. Müller and H. Schmiedel: Surf. Sci. 25, 289 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    C. M. Hollabaugh and J. J. Chessick: J. Phys. Chem. 65, 109 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    C. Morterra, G. Chiotti, E. Garrone and E. Fisicaro: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans.I 76, 2102 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    H. Hattori, M. Itoh and K. Tanabe: J. Catal. 38, 172 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    M. P. P.. Primet and M. V. Mathieu: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 1216 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    H. P. Boehm and M. Herrmann: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 352, 156 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    M. Primet, P. Pichat and M. V. Mathieu, C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. B 267, 799 (1968).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    P. Jackson and G. D. Parfitt: Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 2469 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    G. Munuera and F. S. Stone: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 205 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    K. E. Lewis and G. D. Parfitt: Trans. Faraday Soc. 62, 204 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    J. M. Criado, J. Domminguez, F. Gonzalez, G. Munuera and J. M. Trillo: Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Catal, Moscow (1968), Vol. 1, p. 504 (1970).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    P. J. Anderson, R. F. Horlock and J. F. Oliver: Trans. Faraday Soc. 61, 2754 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    A. J. Tench: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 68, 187 (1972).Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    D. D. Eley, G. M. Kiwanuka and C. N. Rochester: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 72, 876 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    S. Coluccia, M. Deane and A. J. Tench: Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Catal, London (1976), Vol. l,p. 171, The Chemical Society, London (1977).Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    M. Breysse, B. Claudel, L. Faure and M. Guenin: Proc. 7th Int. Vac. Congr. & 3rd Int. Conf. Solid Surf, Vienna, 485–488 (1977).Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    T. Morimoto and H. Naono: Bull Chem. Soc. Jpn. 46, 2000 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    R. K. Webster, T. L. Jones and P. J. Anderson: Proc. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 5, 153 (1965).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Y. Iwasawa: unpublished data.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    T. Morimoto, M. Nagao and F. Tokuda: Bull Chem. Soc. Jpn. 41, 1533 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    A. L. Dent and R. J. Kokes: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 3781 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    K. Atherton, G. Newbold and J. A. Hockey: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 33 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    G. Mattmann, H. R. Oswald and F. Schweizer: Helv. Chim. Acta 55, 1249 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    M. M. Folman: Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 2000 (1961).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    R. G. Azrak and C. L. Angell: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 3048 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    J. P. Collman and L. S. Hegedus: Principles and Applications of Organotransition Metal Chemistry, University Science Books, Mill Valley, California (1980).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    D. C. Locke, J. T. Schmermund and B. Banner: Anal Chem. 44, 90 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    M. Bartholin, C. H. Graillat, A. Guyot, G. Coudurier, J. Bandiera and C. Naccache: J. Mol Catal 3, 17 (1977/78).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    A. R. Sanger and L. R. Schallig: J Mol Catal 3, 101 (1977/78).Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    K. G. Allum, R. D. Hancock, I. V. Howell, A. McKenzie, R. C. Pitkethly and P. J. Robinson: J. Organometal Chem. 87, 203 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    K. G. Allurn, R. D. Hancock, S. McKenzie and P. C. Pitkethly: in Catalysis, Vol. 1 (ed. J. W. Hightower), p. 477, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1973).Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    K. G. Allum, R. D. Hancock, I. V. Howell, T. E. Lester, S. McKenzie, R. C. Pitkethly and P. J. Robinson: J. Organometal. Chem. 107, 393 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    I. Haller: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 8050 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    M. Capka and J. Hetflejs: Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 39, 154 (1974).Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    C. R. Hastings, W. A. Aue and F. N. Larsen: J. Chromatogr. 60, 329 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    C. Eaborn: Organosilicon Compounds, pp. 51–55, Academic Press, New York (1960).Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    E. W. Abel, F. H. Polard, P. C. Uden and G. Nickless: J. Chromatogr. 22, 23 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    H. W. Kohlschutter, P. Best and G. Wirzing: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 285, 236 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    W. Stöber: Kolloid Z. 149, 39 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    L. J. Bellamy: The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules, Wiley (1975).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    B. Evans and T. E. White: J. Catal. 11, 336 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    R. L. Kaas and J. L. Kardos: Polym. Eng. Sci. 11, 1 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    F. Buzek and J. Rathousky: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 79, 47 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    H. Engelhardt and D. Mathes: J. Chromatogr. 142, 311 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    L. J. Boucher, A. A. Oswald and L. L. Murrell: Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Pet. Chem. Prepr. 19, 155 (1974).Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    J. Conan, M. Bartholin and A. Guyot: J. Mol. Catal 1, 375 (1975/76).Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    M. Capka and J. Hetflejs: Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 39, 154 (1974).Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    B. F. Watkins, J. R. Behling, E. Kariv and L. L. Miller: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 3549 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    B. E. Firth, L. L. Miller, M. Mitani, Th. Rogers, J. Lennox and R. W. Murray: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 8271 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    J. C. Lennox and R. W. Murray: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 3710 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    C. P. Jester, R. D. Rocklin and R. W. Murray: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1979 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    C. M. Ellist and R. W. Murray: Anal Chem. 48, 1247 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    K. W. Wiliman, R. D. Rocklin, R. Nowak, K. N. Kuo, F. A. Schultz and R. W. Murray: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 7629 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    G. D. Parfitt, J. Ramsbortham and C. H. Rochester: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 68, 17 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    P. K. Ghosh and T. G. Spiro: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 5543 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    K. G. Allum, R. D. Hancock, I. V. Howell, T. E. Lester, S. McKenzie, R. C. Pitkethly and P. J. Robinson: J. Catal 43, 331 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    R. D. Hancock, I. V. Howell, R. C. Pitkethly and P. J. Robinson: in Catalysis: Heterogeneous and Homogeneous (eds. B. Delmon and G. Jannes), pp. 361–371, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1975).Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    A. A. Oswald, L. L. Murrell and L. J. Boucher: Abstr. 167th Am. Chem. Soc. Meeting, Div. Pet. Chem. 19, 162 (1974).Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    K. G. Allum, R. D. Hancock, I. V. Howell, R. C. Pitkethly and P. J. Robinson: J. Catal 43, 322 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    R. Jackson, J. Raddlesden, D. J. Thompson and R. Whelan: J. Organometal Chem. 125, 57 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    T. J. Pinnavaia, J. G.-S. Lee and M. Abedini: in Silylated Surfaces (eds. D. E. Leyden and W. Collins), pp. 333–345, Gordon and Breach, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    M. S. Wrighton, R. G. Austin, A. B. Bocarsly, J. M. Bolts, O. Haas, K. D. Legg, L. Nadjo and M. C. Palazzotto: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 1602 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    R. D. Rocklin and R. W. Murray: J. Phys. Chem. 85, 2104 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    O. Leal and M. R. Goldwasser, R. Lopez and H. Arzoumanian: Proc. 7th Int. Congr. Catal. Tokyo (1980), Part B, p. 1512, Elsevier/Kodansha, Amsterdam/Tokyo (1981).Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Yu. I. Yermakov: Proc. 7th Int. Congr. Catal. Tokyo (1980), Part A, p. 57, Elsevier/ Kodansha, Amsterdam/Tokyo (1981).Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    K. G. Allum, S. McKenzie and R. C. Pitkethly: U.S. Pat. 3,726, 809 (1973).Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    L. Horner and H. Ziegler: Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 628 (1976).Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    L. W. Burggraf, D. S. Kendall, D. E. Leyden and F. J. Pern: Anal. Chim. Acta 129, 19 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    K. Kochloefl, W. Liebelt and H. Knözinger: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 510 (1977).Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    L. Horner and F. Schumacher: Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 633 (1976).Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    A. K. Smith, J. M. Basset and P. M. Maitlis: J. Mol. Catal. 2, 223 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    C. U. Pittman Jr., S. K. Wuu and S. E. Jacobson:J Catal. 44, 87 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    M. Capka, P. Svoboda and J. Hetflejs: Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 38, 1242 (1973).Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    K. G. Allum, R. D. Hancock, I. V. Howell, R. C. Pitkethly and P. J. Robinson: J. Catal. 43, 322 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Y. M. Zhorov, A. V. Shelkov and G. M Panchenkov: Kinet. Katal. 15, 1091 (1974).Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    A. J. Moffat: J. Catal. 18, 193 (1970).Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    W. O. Haag and D. D. Whitehurst: in Catalysis, Vol. 1 (ed. J. W. Hightower), p. 465, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1973).Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    J. Lahaye and R. Lagarde: J. Catal. 60, 270 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    P. W. H. L. Tjan and J. J. F. Scholten: Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Catal, London (1976), Vol. 1, p. 488, The Chemical Society, London (1977).Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    P. R. Rony: J. Catal 14, 142 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    G. J. K. Acres, G. C. Bond, B. J. Cooper and J. A. Dawson: J. Catal 6, 139 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    K. K. Robinson, F. E. Paulik, A. Hershman and J. F. Roth: J. Catal 15. 245 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    G. C. Bond: Platinum Met. Rev. 11, 147 (1967).Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Monsanto Co.: Belg. Pat. 711, 042 (1968).Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    J. Berthoux and J. P. Martinaud: Ger. Pat. 2,261, 543 (1973).Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    P. R. Rong and J. F. Roth: J. Mol Catal 1, 13 (1975/76).Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    J. Hjortkjaer, M. S. Scurrell and P. Simonsen: J. Mol Catal 6, 405 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    R. Z. Moravec, W. T. Schelling and C. F. Oldershaw: Br. Pat. 511,556 (1939); Can. Pat. 396, 994 (1941).Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    M. Mazzei, W. Marconi and M. Riocci:. J. Mol Catal 9, 381 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    R. L. Burwell Jr., R. G. Pearson, G. L. Haller, P. B. Tjok and S. P. Chock: Inorg. Chem. 4, 1123 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    T. J. Pinnavaia and P. K. Welty: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 3819 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    R. Raythatha and T. J. Pinnavaia: J. Catal 80, 47 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    J. P. Candlin and H. Thomas: in Homogeneous Catalysis II (eds. D. Forster and J. F. Roth), Adv. Chem. Ser. 132, 212 (1974).Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Yu. I. Yermakov: Catal Rev. Sci. Eng. 13, 77 (1976).Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    R. L. Burwell Jr.: Chemtech, 370 (1974).Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Y. Iwasawa, Y. Nakano and S. Ogasawara: Shokubai 19, 4 (1977).Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Y. Iwasawa: Hyomen 19, 160 (1981).Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Y. Iwasawa: Shokubai 26, 191 (1984).Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Yu. I. Yermakov, B. N. Kuznetsov, L. G. Karakchiev and S. S. Derbeneva: Kinet. Katal 14, 709 (1973).Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    B. N. Kuznetsov, Yu. I. Yermakov, V. L. Kuznetsov, Yu. A. Ryndin, L. G. Karachiev, V. G. Shinkarenko, Ye. K. Mamaeva and L. Ya. Startseva: Kinet. Katal. 16, 1356 (1975).Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    a) Y. Iwasawa and H. Sato: Chem. Lett. 507 (1985); unpublished data; (b) S. J. Tauster and S. C. Fung: J. Catal 55, 29 (1978); S. J. Tauster, S. C. Fung, R. T. K. Baker and J. A. Horsley: Science 211, 1121 (1981).Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    G. Carturan, G. Facchin, G. Cocco, S. Enzo and G. Navazio: J. Catal 76, 405 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    G. Carturan, G. Cocco, L. Schiffini and G. Strukul: J. Catal 65, 359 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Yu. I. Yermakov, M. S. Ioffe, B. N. Kuznetsov and Yu. A. Ryndin: Kinet. Katal 16, 807 (1975).Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Yu. I. Yermakov and B. N. Kuznetsov: Kinet. Katal 18, 1167 (1977).Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    K. Matsuo and K. J. Klabunde: J. Org. Chem. 47, 843 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    B. A. Scott, R. M. Plecenik, G. S. Cargill, T. R. McGuire and S. R. Herd: Inorg. Chem. 19, 1252 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    S. C. Davis, S. Severson and K. J. Klabunde: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 3024 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    N. G. Maksimov, G. A. Nesterov, V. A. Zakharov, P. V. Stchastnev, V. F. Anufrienko and Yu. I. Yermakov: J. Mol Catal 4, 167 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    H. E. Evans and W. H. Weinberg: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 872, 2548 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    W. L. Carrick, R. J. Turbett, F. J. Karol, G. L. Karapinka, A. S. Fox and R. N. Johnson: J. Polym. Sci., Part A-1 10, 2609 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    L. M. Baker and W. L. Carrick: J. Org. Chem. 33, 616 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Y. Iwasawa, Y. Sato and H. Kuroda: J. Catal 82, 289 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    B. N. Kuznetsov, A. N. Startsev and Yu. I. Yermakov: J. Mol Catal 8, 135 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Y. Iwasawa, S. Ogasawara and M. Soma: Chem. Lett. 1039 (1978).Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    S. A. Best, R. G. Squires and R. A. Walton: J. Catal 60, 171 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    J. Smith, W. Mowat, D. A. Whan and E. A. V. Ebworth: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1742 (1974).Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    L. K. Prshevalskaya, V. A. Shvets and V. B. Kazanskii: Kinet. Katal 20, 1005 (1979).Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    L. K. Prshevalskaya, V. A. Shvets, V. B. Kazanskii and V. T. Kalinnikov: Kinet. Katal 19, 1277 (1978).Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    M. D. Ward, T. V. Harris and J. Schwartz: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 357 (1980).Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    M. D.Ward and J. Schwartz: J. Mol Catal 11, 397 (1981).Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    M. D. Ward and J. Schwartz: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 5253 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 292a.
    H. C. Foley, S. J. DeCanio, K. D. Tau, K. J. Chao, J. H. Onuferko, C. Dybowski and B. C. Gates: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 3074 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 293.
    T.-N. Huang and J. Schwartz: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 5244 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 294.
    J. Hjortkjaer, M. S. Scurrell and P. Simonsen: J. Mol Catal 10, 127 (1981).Google Scholar
  296. 295.
    P. W. H. L. Tjan and J. J. F. Scholten, Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Catal London (1976), Vol. 1, p. 488, The Chemical Society, London (1977).Google Scholar
  297. 296.
    T. Mole and E. A. Jeffrey: Organoaluminum Compounds, pp. 68–138, Elsevier, London (1972).Google Scholar
  298. 297.
    D. Slotfeldt - Ellingsen, I. M. Dahl and O. H. Ellestad: J. Mol Catal 9, 423 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 298.
    K. Soga, K. Izumi, M. Terano and S. Ikeda: Makromol. Chem. 181, 657 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 299.
    R. H. Grubbs: Chemtech. 512 (1977).Google Scholar
  301. 300.
    J. C. W. Chien: J Catal 23, 71 (1971).Google Scholar
  302. 301.
    K. Soga, T. Sano and R. Ohnishi: Polym. Bull 4, 157 (1981).Google Scholar
  303. 302.
    K. Ziegler, E. Holzkampf, H. Breil and H. Martin: Angew. Chem. 67, 541 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 303.
    K. Weissermel, H. Cherdron, J. Berthold, B. Diedrich, K. D. Keil, K. Rust, H. Strametz and T. Toth: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp. 51, 187 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 304.
    Solvay: Jpn. Pat. 43 13050; Ger. Pats. 2,000,585 and 2,000, 568; Chem. Eng. News 21 (Dec. 5, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  306. 305.
    M. P. McDaniel, M. B. Welch and M. J. Dreiling: J. Catal. 82, 118 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 306.
    T. J. Pullukat, R. E. Hoff and M. Shida: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2927 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 307.
    J. C. W. Chien: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93, 4675 (1971).Google Scholar
  309. 308.
    J. C. W. Chien and J. T. T. Hsiech: in Coordination Polymerization (ed. J. C. W. Chien), p. 305, Academic Press, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  310. 309.
    W. Hanke, R. Bienert and H. G. Yerschkewitz: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 414, 109 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 310.
    G. Ohlmann: Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. DDR, Math-Naturwis-Tech. 12, 64 (1978).Google Scholar
  312. 311.
    V. N. Pak: Zh. Phys. Khim. 54, 1879 (1980).Google Scholar
  313. 312.
    O. V. Krylov: Prepr. 2nd Japan-Soviet Catal. Seminar, Tokyo 240 (1973).Google Scholar
  314. 313.
    H. Praliaud: J. Less-Common Met. 54, 387 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 314.
    H. Praliaud and M. Forissier: React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 8, 451 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 315.
    V. N. Pak, A. N. Volkova, N. N. Kushakova, S. I. Koltsov and V. B. Aleskovskii: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 48, 2394 (1974).Google Scholar
  317. 316.
    A. D. Shebaldova, V. I. Marin, G. G. Nasledkov, M. P. Khidkel, T. A. Popova and V. A. Akchurin: Neftekhin 16, 533 (1976).Google Scholar
  318. 317.
    M. Che, F. Figueras, M. Forissier, J. McAteer, M. Perrin, J. L. Portefaix and H. Praliaud: Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Catal. London (1976), Vol. 1, p. 261, The Chemical Society, London (1977).Google Scholar
  319. 318.
    A. I. Van Roosmalev, K. Polder and J. C. Mol: J. Mol. Catal. 8, 185 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 319.
    V. A. Zakharov and Yu. I. Yermakov: Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 19, 67 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 320.
    G. A. Nesterov, V. A. Zakharov, E. A. Paukshtis, E. N. Yurchenko, V. V. Volkov and K. G. Myakishev: Kinet. Katal. 21, 739 (1980).Google Scholar
  322. 321.
    J. Schwartz and M. D. Ward: J. Mol. Catal. 8, 465 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 322.
    Y. Iwasawa: J Mol. Catal. 17, 93 (1982).Google Scholar
  324. 323.
    Y. Iwasawa and T. Chiba: to be published.Google Scholar
  325. 324.
    Y. Iwasawa and S. Ogasawara: Chem. Lett. 127 (1980).Google Scholar
  326. 325.
    Y. Iwasawa, Y. Sasaki and S. Ogasawara: Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun 140 (1981).Google Scholar
  327. 326.
    Y. Iwasawa, Y. Sasaki and S. Ogasawara: J. Mol. Catal. 16, 27 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 327.
    Y. Iwasawa, H. Ichinose and S. Ogasawara: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 77, 1763 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 328.
    Yu. I. Yermakov and B. N. Kuznetsov: Prepr. 2nd Japan-Soviet Catal. Seminar. Tokyo 65 (1973).Google Scholar
  330. 329.
    Y. Iwasawa, M. Yamagishi and S. Ogasawara: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 871 (1980).Google Scholar
  331. 330.
    Y. Iwasawa, H. Kubo and H. Hamamura: J. Mol. Catal. 28, 191 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 331.
    Y. Iwasawa, Y. Nakano and S. Ogasawara: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans 174, 2968 (1978).Google Scholar
  333. 332.
    Y. Iwasawa, T. Nakamura, K. Takamatsu and S. Ogasawara: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 76, 939 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 333.
    Y. Iwasawa and S. Ogasawara: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 75, 1465 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 334.
    Y. Iwasawa, H. Kubo, M. Yamagishi and S. Ogasawara: Chem. Lett. 1165 (1980).Google Scholar
  336. 335.
    Y. Iwasawa and M. Yamagishi: J. Catal. 82, 373 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 336.
    Y. Iwasawa, Y. Sato and H. Kuroda: J. Catal. 82, 289 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 337.
    Y. Iwasawa, M. Yamagishi and S. Ogasawara: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 246 (1982).Google Scholar
  339. 338.
    Y. Iwasawa and H. Hamamura: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 130 (1983).Google Scholar
  340. 339.
    Y. Iwasawa and H. Tanaka: Proc. 8th Int. Congr. Catal Berlin (1984), IV - 381 (1984).Google Scholar
  341. 340.
    B. N. Kuznetsov, A. N. Startsev and Yu. I. Yermakov: J. Mol Catal 8, 135 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 341.
    Yu. I. Yarmakov, B. N. Kuznetsov, A. N. Startsev, P. A. Zhdan, A. P. Shepelin, V. I. Zaikovskii, L. M. Plyasova and V. A. Burmistrov: J. Mol Catal 11, 205 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 342.
    A. N. Startsev, B. N. Kuznetsov and Yu. I. Yermakov: React. Kinet. Catal Lett. 3, 321 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 343.
    Y. Iwasawa and H. Kobayashi: to be published.Google Scholar
  345. 344.
    B. N. Kuznetsov, Yu. I. Yermakov, A. N. Startsev and V. A. Burmistrov: Prepr. 6th Japan-Soviet Catal Seminar Tokyo 76 (1981).Google Scholar
  346. 345.
    G. V. Lisichkin and S. A. Panichev: in Supported Metallic Catalysts of Hydrocarbon Reactions (in Russian), pp. 51–54, Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (1978).Google Scholar
  347. 346.
    M. Wolfsberg and L. Helmholz: J. Chem. Phys. 20, 837 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 347.
    C. J. Ballhausen and A. D. Liehr: J. Mol Spectrosc. 2, 342 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 348.
    S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo: Inorg. Chem. 14, 1014 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 349.
    A. Cimino and B. A. De Angelis: J. Catal 36, 11 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 350.
    W. E. Swartz, Jr. and D. M. Mercules: Anal Chem. 43, 1774 (1971).Google Scholar
  352. 351.
    J. Chatt, C. M. Elson, G. J. Leigh and J. A. Connor: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1351 (1976).Google Scholar
  353. 352.
    J. Kress, M. Wesolek and J. A. Osborn: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 514 (1982).Google Scholar
  354. 353.
    F. N. Tebbe, Q. W. Parshall and D. W. Ovenall: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 5074 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 354.
    J. L. Herrison and Y. Chauvin: Makromol Chem. 141, 161 (1971).Google Scholar
  356. 355.
    D. J. Cardin, M. J. Doyle and M. F. Lappert: Chem. Soc. Rev. 2, 99 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 356.
    R. H. Grubbs: Prog. Inorg. Chem. 24, 1 (1978).Google Scholar
  358. 357.
    T. J. Katz: Adv. Organometal Chem. 16, 283 (1977).Google Scholar
  359. 358.
    N. Calderon, J. P. Laurence and E. A. Ofstead: Adv. Organometal Chem. 17, 449 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 359.
    E. L. Muetterties: Inorg. Chem. 14, 951 (1978).Google Scholar
  361. 360.
    C. P. Casey and T. J. Burkhardt: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 7808 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 361.
    P. G. Gassman and T. H. Johnson: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 6056 (1976).Google Scholar
  363. 362.
    M. Ephritikine, M. L. H. Green and R. Mackenzie: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun 619 (1976); M. Ephritikine and M. L. H. Green: ibid, 926 (1976).Google Scholar
  364. 363.
    R. H. Grubbs and S. J. Swetnick: J. Mol Catal 8, 25 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 364.
    M. F. Farona and R. L. Tucker: J. Mol Catal 8, 85 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 365.
    D. T. Laverty, J. J. Rooney and A. Stewart: J. Catal 45, 110 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 366.
    R. R. Schrock: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 6577 (1975).Google Scholar
  368. 367.
    S. S. M. Ling and R. J. Puddephatt: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 412 (1982).Google Scholar
  369. 368.
    F. A. Cotton and J. R. Pipal: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93, 5441 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 369.
    F. A. Cotton: Chem. Soc. Rev. 4, 27 (1975).Google Scholar
  371. 370.
    Y. Iwasawa, H. Ishii, K. Asakura and H. Kuroda: to be published.Google Scholar
  372. 371.
    Y. Sato, Y. Iwasawa and H. Kuroda: Chem. Lett. 1101 (1982).Google Scholar
  373. 372.
    F. A. Cotton, S. Koch, M. Mertis, M. Millar and G. Wilkinson: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4989 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 373.
    F. A. Cotton and P. E. Fanwick: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 5252 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 374.
    A. P. Sattelberger and J. P. Fuckler: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 1258 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 375.
    J. G. Norman, Jr. and H. J. Kolari: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 33 (1975):Inorg. Chem. 16, 987 (1977).Google Scholar
  377. 376.
    W. H. Böhmer, K. Madeja, E. Kurras and U. Rosenthal: Z. Chem. 18, 453 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 377.
    M. Benard: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 2354 (1978); J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2546 (1979).Google Scholar
  379. 378.
    M. Colin and A. Herold: C. R. Acad. Set, Ser. C 269, 1302 (1965).Google Scholar
  380. 379.
    M. A. M. Boersma: Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 10, 243 (1974).Google Scholar
  381. 380.
    M. E. Volpin, Yu. N. Novikov, N. D. Lapkina, V. I. Kasatochkin, Yu. T. Struchkov, M. E. Kazakov, R. A. Stukan, V. A. Povitskii, Yu. S. Karimov and A. V. Zvarikina: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 3366 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 381.
    E. Kikuchi, T. Ino and Y. Morita: J. Catal. 57, 27 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 382.
    R. C. Croft: Aust. J. Chem. 9, 181 (1956).Google Scholar
  384. 383.
    S. Parkash, S. K. Chakrabartty and J. G. Hooley: Carbon 15, 307 (1977); ibid. 16, 231 (1978).Google Scholar
  385. 384.
    A. W. Syme Johnson: Acta Crystallogr. 23, 770 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 385.
    J. C. Volta, W. Desquesnes, B. Moraweck and J. M. Tatibouët: Proc. 7th Int. Congr. Catal Tokyo (1980), Part 2?, p. 1398, Elsevier/Kodansha, Amsterdam/Tokyo (1980).Google Scholar
  387. 386.
    J. C. Volta, M. Forissier, F. Theobald and T. P. Pham: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 72, 225 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 387.
    J. C. Volta: Synth. Mater. 4, 319 (1982).Google Scholar
  389. 388.
    J. M. Tatibouët and J. E. Germain: J. Catal 82, 245 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 389.
    J. M. Tatibouët, J. E. Germain and J. C. Volta: J. Catal 82, 240 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 390.
    R. P. A. Sneeden and H. H. Zeiss: J. Organometal Chem. 28, 259 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 391.
    T. Aoki, A. Furusaki, Y. Tomiie, K. Ono and K. Tanaka: Bull Chem. Soc. Jpn. 42, 545 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 392.
    E. Kurras and P. Klimsch: Monatsber. Dtsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 6, 735, 736 (1964).Google Scholar
  394. 393.
    P. Klimsch and E. Kurras: East Ger. Pat. 45, 708 (1964).Google Scholar
  395. 394.
    L. Nodek, D. Mihajlova, A. Andreev, A. Palazov, M. Kraus and D. Shopov: J. Catal 40, 46 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 395.
    D. Reinen: Struct. Bonding (Berlin) 6, 30 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 396.
    Y. Iwasawa, M. Yamada, Y. Sato and H. Kuroda: J. Mol. Catal. 23, 95 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 397.
    Y. Iwasawa and M. Yamada: Nikkashi (in Japanese), 1042 (1984).Google Scholar
  399. 398.
    R. C. Ryan and L. F. Dahl: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 6904 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. F. A. Cotton: Inorg. Chem. 5, 1083 (1966).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordecht, Hollad 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Iwasawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceThe University of TokyoHongo, Bunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations