Advertisement

Social Support and Social Health

Is it Time to Rethink the WHO Definition of Health
  • Robert M. Kaplan
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASID, volume 24)

Abstract

For nearly thirty-five years, physicians, psychologists, sociologists, and epidemiologists have been attempting to include social support and social function in the definition of health status. Despite relentless efforts, it has been difficult to meaningfully define social support as a component of health. In this paper, I argue that the effort to define “social health” should be abandoned. Instead, efforts should be directed toward identifying the role of social support as a mediator of health status.

Keywords

Health Status Social Support Diabetes Control Social Health Medical Care System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bergner, M., Bobbitt, R. A., Carter, W. B., & Gilson, B. S. (1981). The sickness impact profile; development and final revision of a health status measure. Medical Care, 19, 787–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bush, J. W., Chen, M., & Patrick, D. L. (1973). Cost-effectiveness using a health status index: analysis of the New York State PKU screening program. In R. Berg, (Ed.), Health Status Index (pp. 172–208 ). Chicago: Hospital Research and Educational Trust.Google Scholar
  3. Chambers, L. W., Macdonald, L. A., Tugwell, P., Buchanan, W. W., & Kraag, C. (1982). The McMaster Health Index Questionnaire as a measure of quality of life for patients with rheumatoid disease. Journal of Rheumatology. 9, 780–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 38. 300–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Donald, C. A., Ware, J. E., Jr., Brook, R. H., & Avery, A. D. (1978). Conceptualization and measurement of health for adults in the health insurance study. Vol. IV. Social Health (R-1987/4-HEW). Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  6. Haggerty, Heitznann, C. A., & Kaplan, R. M. (1984). Sex by social support interaction in the control of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
  7. House, J. S., Robbins, C., & Metzner, H. L. (1982). The association of social relationships and activities with mortality: Prospective evidence from the Tecumseh Community Health Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology. 116. 123–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jette, A. M. (1980). Health status indicators: their utility in chronic disease evaluation research. Journal of Chronic Disease, 33, 567–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kane, R. A., & Kane, R. L. (1981). Assessing the elderly. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company.Google Scholar
  10. Kaplan, B., Cassel, J., & Gore, S. (1977). Social support and health. Medical Care. 15. 47–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaplan, R. M., & Criqui, M. H. (1984). Behavioral epidemiology and disease prevention. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  12. Kaplan, R. M. (1982). Human preference measurcnent for health decisions and the evaluation of long-term care. In R. L. Kane & R. A. Kane (Eds.), Values and long-term care (pp. 157–188 ). Boston: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  13. Kaplan, R. M. (1984). Quantification of health outcomes for policy studies in behavioral epidemiology. In R. M. Kaplan & M. H. Criqui (Eds.), Behavioral epidemiology and disease prevention. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  14. Kaplan, R. M., & Bush, J. W. (1982). Health-related quality of life measurement for evaluation research and policy analysis. Health Psychology, 1,. 61–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaplan, R. H., Bush, J. W., & Berry, C. C. (1976). Health status: types of validity for an index of well-being. Health Services Research. 11. 478–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaplan, R. M., Bush, J. W., & Berry, C. C. (1978). The reliability, stability, and generalizability of a health status index. American Statistical Association. Proceedings SL Iha Social Statistics Section (pp. 704–709).Google Scholar
  17. Kaplan, R. M., Bush, J. W., & Berry, C. C. (1979). Health status index: Category rating versus magnitude estimation for measuring levels of well-being. Medical Care. 5. 501–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaplan, R. H., & Ernst, J. A. (1983). Do category rating scalcs produce biased preference weights for a health index? Medical Care. 21. 193–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leighton, A. (1959). My name is Legion. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  20. Liang, M. H., Cullen, K., & Larson, M. (1982). In search of a more perfect nousetrap (health status or a quality of life instrument). Journal of Rheumatology. 9. 775–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mann, G. (1977). The diet-heart hypothesis: The end of an era. New England Journal of Medicine.Google Scholar
  22. Meenan, R. F. (1982). AIMS approach to health status measurement: Conceptual background and measurement properties. Journal of Rheumatology. 9. 785–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hosteller, F. (1981). Taking science out of social science. Science. 212–291.Google Scholar
  24. Patrick, D. L., Bush, J. V., &. Chen, M. (1973a). Toward an operational definition of health. Journal of Health Social Behavior. 228–245.Google Scholar
  25. Patrick, D. L., Bush, J. W., & Chen, M. (1973b). Methods for measuring levels of well-being for a health status index. Health Services Research, 228–245.Google Scholar
  26. Piatt, J. J., & Spivack, C. (1974). Means of solving real life problems: Psychiatric patients vs. controls, and cross cultural comparisons of normal females. Journal of Community Psychology. 2. 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reynolds, V. J., Rushing, W. A., & Miles, D. L. (1974). The validation of a function status index. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 15. 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press Macaillan.Google Scholar
  29. Sarason, I. G., Levine, H. H., Basham, B. R., & Sarason, B. R. (1983). Assessing social support; the social support questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 44. 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stewart, A. L., Ware, J. E., Brook, R. H., & Davies-Avery, A. R. (1978). Conceptual and measurement of health for adults. Vol. 2. Physical health in terms of functioning.Google Scholar
  31. Surwit, R. S., Feinglos, M., & Scover, A. W. (1983). Diabetes and behavior: A paradigm for health psychology. American Psychologist. 38. 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Veit, C. T., Ware, J. E. (1982). Measuring health and health-care outcomes: issues and recommendations. In R. L. Kane & R. A. Kane (Eds.), Values and long-terra care (pp. 223–259 ). Boston: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  33. Wallston, B. S, Alagna, S. W., DeVellis, B. M., & DeVellis, R. F. (1983). Social support and physical health. Health Psychology, 2. 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ware, J. E., Jr., Brook, R. H., Davies, A. R., & Lohr, K. N. (1981). Choosing measures of health status for individuals in general populations. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  35. Ware, J. E., Jr., & Donald, C. A. (1980). Social well-being: Its meaning and measurement. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  36. Weinstein, M. C., & Stason, W. B. (1976). Hypertension: A policy perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. World Health Organization. (1948). Constitution of the World Health Organization. In; Basic documents. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Kaplan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Behavioral MedicineSan Diego State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Community and Family Medicine School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations