Advertisement

An Eco-Geomorphological Approach to the Soil Degradation and Erosion Problem

  • A. C. Imeson
Conference paper

Summary

The processes of soil degradation associated with desertification are reviewed. Changes in soil structure occurring when natural ecosystems are disturbed, are examined with respect to the effect that they have on erosion and the soil water balance. How soil physical properties can best be evaluated for erosion control is described using examples from Mediterranean areas. Some of the difficulties in evaluating the soil erosion hazard are indicated. For predicting the erosion hazard it is necessary to understand how ecological, hydrological, pedological and erosional processes are interwoven. For combatting erosion on cultivated land attention should be given to improving the soil structure.

Keywords

Soil Erosion Soil Loss Sediment Yield Infiltration Rate Soil Degradation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bonell, M., M.R. Hendriks, A. Cimeson and L. Hazelhoff, 1984. The generation of storm runoff in a forested clayey drainage basin in Luxembourg. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 71, 53–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, L.R., 1981. Eroding the base of civilisation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 36, 255–260.Google Scholar
  3. Bryan, R.B. and I.A. Campbell, 1982. Surface flow and erosional processes in semi-arid meso-scale channels and drainage basins. Intern. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. Publ., 137, 123–133.Google Scholar
  4. Chittelborough, D.J., 1982. Effect of the method of dispersion on the yield of clay and fine clay. Australian Journ. of Soil Research, Vol. 20, 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conacher, A.J., 1975. Throughflow as a mechanism responsible for excessive soil salinisation in non-irrigated, previously arable lands in the Western Australian wheat belt: a field study. Catena, Vol. 2, 31–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dregne, H.E., 1978. Desertification: Man’s abuse of the land. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 33, 11–14.Google Scholar
  7. Emerson, W.W., 1967. A classification of soil aggregates based on their coherence in water. Australian Journ. of Soil Research, Vol. 5, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Franklin, J.F., K. Cromack Jr., W. Denison, A. McKee, C. Maser, J. Sedell, F. Swanson and G. Juday, 1981. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas Fir forests. USDA For. Serv. General Techn. Rep. PNW-118, 48 pp. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  9. Graf, W.L., 1977. The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journ. of Science, Vol. 277, 178–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Graf, W.L., 1979. The development of montane arroyos and gullies. Earth Surface Processes, Vol. 4, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamilton, G.J., I. White, B.E. Clothier, D.E. Smiles and I.J. Packer, 1983. The prediction of time to ponding of constant intensity rainfall. Journal of Soil Conservation, New South Wales, Vol. 39, 188–198.Google Scholar
  12. Hekstra, 1984. Paper to be presented at the Conference.Google Scholar
  13. Imeson, A.C. and F.J.P.M. Kwaad, 1980. Gully types and gully prediction. Geografisch Tijdschrift Vol. 14, 430–441.Google Scholar
  14. Imeson, A.C. and F.J.P.M. Kwaad, 1982. Field measurements of infiltration in the Rif Mountains of Morocco. Studia Geomorphologica Balcanica, Krakow.Google Scholar
  15. Imeson, A.C., F.J.P.M. Kwaad and J.M. Verstraten, 1982. The relationship of soil physical and chemical properties to the development of badlands in Morocco, 44-70 in: Bryan, R.B. and Yair, A. (eds.). Badland Geomorphology, GeoBooks, Norwich, 408 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Imeson, A.C. and J.M. Verstraten, 1985. The erodibility of highly calcareous materials from southern Spain (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Kirkby, M.J., 1980. “The Problem”. Chapter 1 (pp. 1-16) in “Soil Erosion” (ed. M.J. Kirkby and R.P.C. Morgan, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 312 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Knisel, W.G., undated. Editor CREAMS. A field-scale model for chemicals, runoff and erosion from Agricultural Management systems. U.S.Dept. of Agriculture Conservation Research Report no. 26, 640 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Langbein, W.B. and S.A. Schumm, 1958. Yield of sediment in relation to mean annual precipitation. Transactions American Geophys.Union, Vol. 39, 1976–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Loveday, J. and J. Pyle, 1973. The Emerson dispersion test and its relationship to hydraulic conductivity. Division of Soils Techn. Paper 15, 1–7. CSIRO Australia.Google Scholar
  21. Low, A.J., 1972. The effect of cultivation on the structure and other characteristics of grassland and arable soils (1945–1970). Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 23, 363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ploey, J.de, 1982. A stemflow equation for grasses and similar vegetation. Catena, Vol. 9, 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ploey, J.de, and H.J. Mücher, 1981. A consistency index and rainwash mechanisms on Belgian loamy soils. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 6, 319–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reid, J.B. and M.J. Goss, 1981. Effect of living roots of different plant species on the aggregate stability of two arable soils. Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 32, 521–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rubin, J., 1968. Numerical analysis of ponded rainfall infiltration. Internat. Assoc. of Scientific Hydrology, Symposium Wageningen, pp. 440-451.Google Scholar
  26. Schumm, S.A., 1979. Geomorphic thresholds: the concept and its applications. Inst. of British Geographers Transactions, New Series, Vol. 4, 485–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scoging, H.and J.B. Thornes, 1980. Infiltration characteristics in a semiarid environment. Internat. Assoc. of Scientific Hydrology, Pub. 128, 159–168.Google Scholar
  28. Shanmuganathan, R.T. and J.M. Oades, 1982. Effect of dispersible clay on the physical properties of the B horizon of a red-brown earth. Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 20, 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith, R.E., 1972. The infiltration envelope: results from a theoretical infiltrometer. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 17, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith, R.E. and J.Y. Parlange, 1978. A parameter efficient hydrologic infiltration model. Water Resources Research, Vol. 14, 533–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Swanson, F.J., R.L. Fredrikson and F.M. McCorison, 1982. Material transfer in a Western Oregon Forested Watershed, p. 233–266 in: Edmonds, R.L. (ed.): Analysis of coniferous forest ecosystems in the Western United States. US/IBP Synthesis Series 14,,Stroudsburg, Pa. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  32. Tisdall, J.M. and J.M. Oades, 1982. Organic matter and water stable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vis, M., 1985. Rainfall characteristics and splash erosion in forest ecosystems of the Central Colombian Andes (in prep).Google Scholar
  34. Voorhees, W.B., 1979. Soil tilth deterioration in the northern Corn Belt: Influence of tillage and wheel traffic. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 34, 184–186.Google Scholar
  35. Wischmeier, N.H. and D.D. Smith, 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses-a guide to conservation planning. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Handbook no. 537, 58 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Yair, A., H. Lavee, R.B. Bryan and E. Adair, 1980. Runoff and erosion processes and rates in the Zin Valley Badlands, Northern Negev, Israel. Earth Surface Processes, Vol. 5, 205–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Imeson
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physical Geography and Soil ScienceUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations