What Ought to be
Sometimes, instead of saying that a certain person ought to do a certain thing, we may say that a certain state of affairs ought to be, or ought to occur. For example, someone who is annoyed by loud motorcycles might say that there ought to be a law against such things. Someone who thinks government is getting corrupt might say that there should be more honesty in government. Someone who feels that the present distribution of wealth is unjust might say that there ought to be a more equal distribution of wealth in the world. Each of these could very well be a statement of the ought-to-be.
KeywordsMoral Obligation Good World Causal Determinism Severe Thunderstorm Innocent Victim
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Notes to Chapter 8
- 2a.This approach is based on things said by Jaakko Hintikka in ‘Some Main Problems of Deontic Logic,’ in Deontic Logic: Introductory and Systematic Readings ed. by Risto Hilpinen (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1970), pp. 59–104.Google Scholar
- 5.David Lewis, Counterfactuals (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973), Chapter 5.Google Scholar
- 7.Lewis replied to McMichael’s criticism in ‘Reply to McMichael,’ Analysis 38 (1978), 85–86.Google Scholar
- 14.Roderick M. Chisholm, ‘The Ethics of Requirement,’ American Philosophical Quarterly I (1964), 147–153.Google Scholar
- 15.Roderick M. Chisholm, ‘The Ethics of Requirement,’ American Philosophical Quarterly I (1964), Ibid., p. 150.Google Scholar