• T. M. B. Sessions
  • C. G. Purnell
  • R. C. Jones


Extrusion is the process in which material is forced by compression to flow through a suitably shaped aperture in a die, usually to give a product of a smaller but uniform cross-sectional area.


Extrusion Ratio Plastic Collapse Hydrostatic Extrusion Cold Extrusion Dummy Block 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rück, P. Aluminium, 55 (3), (1979), 221.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lane, K. and Stenger H., Extrusion, American Society of Metals, 1981, p. 353.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pickens, R. Light Metal Age, (Feb. 1978), 6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ateliers de Charmilles SA UK Patent Application GB 2059324A.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gwyther, L. and Blundell, G. E.Aluminium Industry, 3 (6), Nov. 1984 ), 7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ruppin, D. and Müller, K. Aluminium, 52 (7), (1982), E107 - E110.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sauer, G. Hot working materials for the construction of extrusion press tools, in Extrusion, Lang, G., Castle, A. F., Banser, M. and Scharf, G., (eds), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde EV, 1982, p. 179.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cairns, J. H. and Such, D. B. JIM., 98 (1970), 289.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bauser, M. and Tuschy, E. State of the art and future development of extrusion in Extrusion, Lang, G., Castle, A F., Banser, M. and Scharf, G., (eds ), Deutsche Gesselschaft für Metallkunde EV, 1982.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wagner, A. and Hödel, U. Extrusion in the future — the view point of production, Ibid.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Century Aluminium Co. Ltd, British Patent Application GB 2067944A.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weber, R. D. The Wire Industry, (Sept. 1965), 872.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Markworth, M. and Ribbecke, G. Metall, (Aug. 1974), 111.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tokizawa, M. and Suda, H., Sosei to Kako, 17 (191), (1976), 951.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carter, R. D. and Stewart, W. H. The extrusion of copper and copper alloys for tube manufacture, Proc. of the 19th Annual Conference, Australian Inst, of Metals, Port Kemblar, 1966.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iakeret, R., Aluminium, 59 (9), (1983), E276.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Müller, E. Hydraulic Extrusion Presses, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Göttingen/ Heidelberg, 1961, p. 164.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaiser Aluminium and Chemical Sales Inc., Aluminium Extrusion Die Design, Kaiser Center, Oakland, CA, 1963.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braun, H. and Schulte, W. Stahl Eisen, 86 (1966), 967.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Starostin, Yu. S., Kargin, V. R. and Yurov, Yu. V. Tsvetnye Metally, (Oct. 1975), 70.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bielen, J. Aluminium, 52 (12), (1976), 736..Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valberg, H., Hansen, A. W. and Loland, J. O. Metal flow at the die aluminium extrusion, Proc. Third International Aluminium Extrusion Technology Seminar, Atlanta, GA, Apr. 1984. The Aluminium Association Inc. and Aluminium Extruders Council.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhobolov, V. V. and Zverev, G. I. The Extrusion of Metals, USSR/US Joint Publications Research Service.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pearson, C. E. and Parkins, R. N. The Extrusion of Metals, Chapman & Hall, London, 1944.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wilcox, R. J. and Whitton, P. W. J. Inst. Metals, 87 (1959), 289.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Siebel, E. and Fangmeier, E. Mitt. K. W. Inst, für Eisenforschung 13 (1931), 29.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singer, A. R. E. and Al-Samarrai, S. H. K. Inst. Metals, 89 (1960/1961), 225.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johnson, W. and Kudo, H. The Mechanics of Metal Extrusion, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1962.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sortais, H. C. and Kobayashi, S. Int. J. of Meek Tool Design Research, 8 (1968), 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen, C. T. and Ling, F. F, Int. J. ofMech. Sei., 10 (1968), 863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Avitzur, B. J. of Engineering for Industry, (Nov. 1964), 305 (Trans, ASME Paper 63-WA-l).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Avitzur, B. J. of Engineering for Industry, (May 1967), 1 (Trans. ASME Paper 67-Prod-5).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zimerman, Z. and Avitzur, B. J. Engineering for Industry, (Feb. 1970), 135 (Trans. ASME Paper 69-WA-Prod-20).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shabaik, A H., Negroni, F. and Thomsen, E. G. Trans. ASME, (1970), Paper 70-WA/Prod-16.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Unksov, E. P. and Safarov, Yu. S. Arch. Mech. Eng., Polish Academy of Sciences, 20 (1973), 55.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blazynski,T. Z. Metal Forming Tool Profiles and Flow, Macmillan Press Ltd, London, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vaidyanathan, P. V. and Blazynski, T. Z. J. Inst. Metals, 101 (1973), p. 79.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nagpal, V., Altan, T. and Gagne, R. J. of Mechanical Working Technology, (1977), No. 1, 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nagpal, V., Billhardt, C. F. and Altan, T. J. of Engineering for Industry, 101 (Aug. 1979), 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sheppard, T. and Raybould, D. J. Institute of Metals, 101 (1973), 73.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ruppin, D. and Muller, K. Aluminium, 58 (12), (1982), E253.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Akeret, R. Aluminium, 59 (10), (1983), E355.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Akeret, R. Aluminium, 60 (3), (1984), E155.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lefer, H. Precision Metal Moulding (Apr. 1963), 40.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones, R. C. Modern extrusion, Birmingham Metallurgical Association Symposium, June 1980.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Purnell, C. and Males, D. Light Metal Age, (Apr. 1980), 12.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fuchs, F. J. Wire Journal, 105 (10), (1970).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fuchs, F. J. and Schnell, G. L. Proc Int. Conf. on Continuous Hydrostatic Extrusion, University of Stirling, 1973.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Green, D. Hydrospin, J. Inst. Met. (1971), No. 3.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Avitzur, B. Wire Journal, (1975), No. 7.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Etherington, C. Int. Wire and Machinery Assoc. Conf. on New Developments in Wire Technology, Amsterdam, 1976.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Etherington, C. Proc. 1st ROMP Conf, London, 1979.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pardoe, J. A Int. Tube Assoc. Tube Asia Conf, Singapore, 1982.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Slater, H. K. Proc. ASM Metals Congress’83, Philadelphia, 1983.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    ICFG Data Sheets and Documents — Data Sheets 1/70,2/70, Documents 4/82, 5/82, 6/82. The Inst, of Sheet Metal Engineering, Redhill, Surrey, UK.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gronbaek, J. Proc. 10th North American Metalworking Research Conf, Hamilton, Canada 1982.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pugh, H. LI. D. Bulleid Memorial Lectures 3B, University of Nottingham, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Elsevier Applied Science Publishers LTD 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. M. B. Sessions
    • 1
  • C. G. Purnell
    • 2
  • R. C. Jones
    • 2
  1. 1.Wolfson Industrial Unit, University of BirminghamUK
  2. 2.BNF Metals Technology CentreWantageUK

Personalised recommendations