Advertisement

Physics of Solar Ponds

  • C. L. Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

Solar pond is essentially a solar radiation based heat collection and storage device with a built—in semitransparent insulation. This insulation is in the form of a nonconvective zone for salt gradient ponds, a honeycomb in case of honeycomb ponds and a Gel in the case of Gel ponds. Shallow ponds and roof ponds usually have opaque insulation covers, which, can be removed during Sunup hours. The significance of solar ponds as an option is that they are cheaper than conventional collectors, their construction primarily requires civil engineering expertise and easily available low energy input materials and they will use well proven technologies e.g. algal control as in swimming pools, brine pumping from chemical plants, heat exchangers as used in heat recovery systems etc. Also, they are the only solar thermal systems, which provide energy storage at the point of collection. By suitable design, the period of energy storage dould be extended from usual weekly basis to monthly or seasonal, if required. Honeycomb and Gel ponds are still in their infancy in terms of development and application where as salt gradient ponds have been used for quite some time for low grade heat needed for space heating, agriculture drying, chemical plants process water and for power generation till 5 mW scale [1,2]. Most salt gradient ponds are unsaturated ponds and till now have used Sodium Chloride [3,4] and Bittern from the sea [5]. Work on saturated ponds and marginally stable ponds [6,7] is yet to mature to yield applications. Recently, Hull has proposed ponds using Fertiliser salts [8] so as to reduce the possibility of any adverse environmental risks in case of liner rupture or construction and failures to simplify

Keywords

RAYLEIGH Number Rankine Cycle Double Diffusive Convection Salt Gradient Solar Pond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Tabor, (1981), ‘Nonconvective Solar Pond’, Chapter 10 in ‘Solar Energy Handbook’ (Ed.J.F. Kreider and F.Kerith, McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C.E. Nielsen, (1980), ‘Nonconvective Salt Gradient Solar Ponds’, Chapter 11 in ‘Solar Energy Technology Handbook’ (Ed.W.C.Dickinson & P.N.Cheremisinoff) Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.M. Patel and C.L. Gupta, (1981), ‘Experimental Solar Pond in Hot Humid Climate’, SUNWORLD,5 (4) pp.115–118.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Srinivasan, (1985), ‘Construction and Performance of an Experimental Solar Pond’, Bangalore KSCST Report 85 SP. Indian Bangalore.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.S. Mehta, K.K. Bokil and S.D.Gomkale, (1984), ‘Construction and Performance of CSMCRI Bittern Based Solar Pond’, Proc.of Int.Sym on Renewable Energy Part A,pp.221–30 Lahore, Pakishan (1983) Published by Elsevier.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.R. Hull and C.E. Nielsen, (1986), ‘Solar Ponds’, Chapter 5 in Vol.3 of ‘Reviews of Renewable Energy (Ed. Sodha, Mathur Program, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Katti, (1985), ‘Solar Ponds’, PhD Thesis, IIT, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.R. Hull, (1986), ‘Solar Ponds Using Ammonium Salts’, Solar Energy, 36(6), pp.551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Tabor, (1986), ‘Solar Ponds-lessons Learned from 150 kWe Power Plant at Ein Bokek in Solar Engineering (Ed.R.R. Faber)’, pp.34–47, ASME, New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    V.V.N. Kishore, K.S. Rao, C.L. Gupta and C.E. Nielsen, (1983), ‘A Programme for Solar Pond Development in India’, GEDA Report,Vadodara, India.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.R. Hull and C.E. Nielsen, (1986), ‘Salt Gradient Stabilized Solar Ponds’, CRC Press Monograph, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.W.S. Charters, (1984), ‘Solar Ponds for Industrial Process Heat’, Proc. of Int. Symposium on Renewable Energy, Part A,pp. 185–192, Lahore, Pakistan,1983 Published by Elsevier (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.B. Collins, (1984), ‘Alice Springs Solar Project in Solar World Congress’, (Ed.S.V.Szokolay) 2, pp.775 Pergamon Press (1984).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V.V.N. Kishore and Veena Joshi (1984), A Practical Collector Efficiency Equation for Nonconvecting Solar Ponds’ Solar Energy 33, 391–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.S. Sodha, N.D. Kaushik and S.K. Rao, (1981), ‘Thermal Analysis of Three Zone Solar Pond’, Energy Research, 5, 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T.A. Reddy, S. Jumpa and G.Y. Saunier,(1986), ‘Effective Daily Mean Position of Sun for Solar ponds’, Solar Energy, 37, 75–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Rabl and C.E. Nielsen, (1975), ‘Solar Ponds for Space Heating’, Solar Energy, 17, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.P.Sukhatme, (1984), ‘Solar Energy’, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.L. Gupta, R.P. Issac and S.M. Patel, (1980), ‘Design Procedure for a Solar Pond’, Regional Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2, 193–203.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.R. Hull and B.J. Brinkworth, (1980), ‘Computer Simulation of Solar Pond Thermal Behaviour’, Solar Energy, 25, 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H.P. Garg, (1983), ‘Solar ponds’, Energy Digest, 2 (10/11) Tata Energy Documentation and Information Centre, Bombay.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.N.A. Hawlader and B.J. Brinkworth, (1981), ‘An Analysis of the Nonconvecting Solar Pond’, Solr Energy, 27, 95–204.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Weinberger (1964), ‘The Physics of Solar Pond’, Solar Energy, 8, 45–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.F. Kooi (1979),‘The Steady State Salt Gradient solar Pond’, Solar Energy, 23, 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R.A. Tybout, (1967),‘A Recursive Alternative to Weinberger’s Model of Solar Pond’, Solar Energy, 11, 109–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.R. Isaac, and C.L-Gupta (1982), ‘A Parametric Design Study of Solar Ponds’, Applied Energy, 11, 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Edesess, J. Henderson and T.S. Jayader, (1979), ‘A Simple Design Tool for Sizing Solar Ponds’, SERI Report SERI/RR-351–347, Golden, Colorado, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.P. Fynn, and T.H. Short, (1983), ‘Solar Ponds-a Basic Manual, SP Circular 106, OARDC, Wooster, Ohio, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Almanza and H.C. Bryant, (1983), ‘Oscillating Motions in the Nonconvective Layer of a Solar Pond’, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 105, 375–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T.A. Newell and R.F. Boehm, (1982), ‘Gradient Zone Constraints in a Salt Stratified Pond’, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 104, 280–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Elata, and O. Levin, (1962), ‘Selective Flow in a Pond with Density Gradient’, Hydraulic Lab. Report, Technion, Haifa, Israel.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D.G. Daniel, and M.F. Merriam, (1975), ‘Fluid Dynamics of Selective Withdrawal in Solar Ponds’,- ISES Congress, LA, California, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Y.S. Cha, W.T. Sha and W.W. Schertz, (1982), ‘Modelling of the Surface Convective Layer of Salt Gradient Solar Ponds’, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 104, 293–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.F. Atkinson and D.R.F. Harleman, (1983), ‘A Wind Mixed Layer Model for Solar Ponds’, Solar Energy,31, 243–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.R. Hull, (1986), ‘Stability and Economics of Solar Ponds using Ammonium Salts in Solar Engineering 1986’ (Ed.R.R.Farber, ASME, New York, 330.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.J. Witte (1986), ‘Operational Constraints and Growth/Erosion Rate for Solar Pond Salt Candidates in Solar Engineering 1986’ (Ed. R.R. Farber, ASME, Nfew a York, 338.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. L. Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Solar Energy UnitSri Aurobindo AshramPondicheryIndia

Personalised recommendations