Theories of Transsexualism

  • Leslie M. Lothstein
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 22)


Although transsexualism is recognized as ‘un mal ancien’, which has historical, mythological, cultural and anthropological roots, it was not until 1980 that it was formally recognized by the American Psychiatric Association as a serious emotional disorder [1]. In fact, the term, ‘transsexual,’ only appeared in the literature in 1949 [9] and it was not until 1966 that it was accorded clinical status by Benjamin [4] whose pioneering work, The Transsexual Phenomenon, provided the first textbook on transsexualism. In this sense, one must regard the clinical disorder of transsexualism as a recent phenomenon.


Gender Identity Gender Dysphoria Prenatal Hormone Transsexual Patient Male Transsexual 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association: 1980, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS III), Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barlow, D. et al.: 1973, ‘Gender Identity Change in a Transsexual’, Archives of General Psychiatry 28, 569–576.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bates, J. et al.: 1975, ‘Interventions with Families of Gender Disturbed Boys’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 45, 150–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benjamin, H.: 1966, The Transsexual Phenomenon, Julian Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blumer, D.: 1969, ‘Transsexualism; Sexual Dysfunction and Temporal Lobe Disorders’, in R. Green, and J. Money (eds.). Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brierley, H.: 1979, Transvestism: A Handbook with Case Studies for Psychologists, Psychiatrists, and Counselors, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brod, T.: 1981, ‘The Psychotherapeutic Evaluation of “Transsexuals”: Clinical Quandaries Posed by Recognizing Self-deficiencies’, in I. Pauly (ed.). Abstracts and Proceedings of the 7th International Gender Dysphoria Association, Lake Tahoe, pp. 19–20.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buck, T.: 1977, Familial Factors Influencing Female Transsexualism, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Smith College School for Social Work, Northhampton, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cauldwell, D.: 1949, ‘Psychopathia Transsexualis’, Sexology 16, 274–280.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davies, B. and Morgenstern, F.: 1960 ‘A Case of Cycticercosis, Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Transvestism’, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 23, 247–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eber, M.: 1980, ‘Gender Identity Conflicts in Male Transsexualism’, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 44, 31–38.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eber, M.: 1980 ‘Primary Transsexualism: A Critique of a Theory’, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 46, 168–182.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ehrhardt, A. and Meyer-Bahlburg, H.: 1981, ‘Effects of Prenatal Sex Hormones on Gender Related Behavior’, Science 211, 1312–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Halle, E., Schmidt, C. and Meyer, J.: 1980, The Role of Grandmothers in Transsexualism’, American Journal of Psychiatry 137, 497–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hill, D.: 1952, ‘EEG in Episodic Psychotic and Psychopathic Behavior: Classification of Data’, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology (Amsterdam) 4, 419–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoenig, J. and Torr, J.: 1964, ‘Karyotyping of Transsexualists’, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 8, 157–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Imperato-McGinley, J. et al.: 1979, ‘Androgens and the Evaluation of Male Gender Identity among Male Pseudo Hermaphrodites with a 5-alpha-reductase Deficiency’, New England Journal of Medicine 300, 1233–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kernberg, O.: 1975, Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism, Jason Aronson, New York.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kohlberg, L.: 1971, ‘A Cognitive Developmental Analysis of Children’s Sex-role Concepts and Attitudes’, in E. Maccoby (ed.). The Development of Sex Differences, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, pp. 82–173.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kohut, H.: 1971, The Analysis of the Self, International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kohut, H.: 1977, The Restoration of the Self, International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liakos, A.: 1967, ‘Familial Transvestism’, British Journal of Psychiatry 113, 49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Limentani, A.: 1979, ‘The Significance of Transsexualism in Relation to Some Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts’, International Review of Psycho-Analysis 6, 139–153.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Litin, E. et al.: 1956, ‘Parental Influence in Unusual Sexual Behavior in Children’, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 25, 37–55.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loomis, D.,: 1977, Cognitive Abilities in Male to Female Transsexuals’, in Dissertation Abstracts International, Microfilms No. 7731000, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lothstein, L.: 1977, ‘Psychotherapy with Patients with Gender Dysphoria Syndromes’, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 41, 563–582.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lothstein, L.: 1979, ‘Group Therapy with Gender-dysphoric Patients’, American Journal of Psychotherapy 33, 67–81.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lothstein, L.: 1982, ‘Sex Reassignment Surgery: Historical, Bioethical, and Theoretical Issues’, American Journal of Psychiatry 139, 417–426.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lothstein, L.: 1983, Female to Male Transsexualism, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lothstein, L.: 1984, ‘Psychological Testing with Transsexuals: A 30 Year Review’, Journal of Personality Assessment 48, 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mahler, M.: 1967, ‘On Human Symbiosis and the Vicissitudes of Individuation’, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 15, 740–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Meyenburg, B. and Sieguesch, V.: 1977, ‘Transsexuals in West Germany: Therapeutic Guidelines and Legal Problems’, Abstract: Fifth International Gender Dysphoria Symposium, Norfolk, Virginia, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meyer, J.: 1974, ‘Clinical Variants Among Applicants for Sex Reassignment’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 3, 527–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Money, J. and Ehrhardt, A.: 1972, Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Money, J. and Russo, A.: 1979, ‘Homosexual Outcome of Discordant Gender Identity/Role in Childhood: Longitudinal Follow-up’, Journal of Pediatric Psychology 4, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Newman, L. and Stoller, R.: 1974, ‘Non-transsexual Men Who Seek Sex Reassignment’, American Journal of Psychiatry 131, 437–441.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pauly, I.: 1974, ‘Female Transsexualism: Part I.’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 3, 487–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pauly, I.: 1974, ‘Female Transsexualism: Part II.’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 3, 509–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Person, E. and Ovesey, L.: 1974, ‘The Transsexual Syndrome in Males: I. Primary Transsexualism’, American Journal of Psychotherapy 28, 4–20.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Person, E. and Ovesey, L.: 1974, ‘The Transsexual Syndrome in Males: II. Secondary Transsexualism’, American Journal of Psychotherapy 28, 174–193.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rekers, G. et al.:1974, ‘The Behavioral Treatment of a “Transsexual” Preadolescent Boy’, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roiphe, E. and Galenson, H.: 1981, Infantile Origins of Sexual Identity, International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rubin, R. et al.: 1981, ‘Postnatal Gonadal Steroid Effects on Human Behavior’, Science 211, 1318–1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Socarides, C.: 1970, ‘A Psychoanalytic Study of the Desire for Sexual Transformation (“Transsexualism”): The Plaster-of-Paris Man’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 51, 341–349.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Späte, Z.: 1970, ‘Zum Abteil des limbischen Systems in der Pathogenese des Transvestismus’, Psychiatrie, Neurologie, und medizinische Psychologie 22, 339–344.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stoller, R.: 1968, Sex and Gender, Science House, New York.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stoller, R.: 1975, ‘Gender Identity’, in A. Freedman et al. (eds.). Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry/II, Williams & Wilkins, New York, pp. 1400–1408.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stoller, R.: 1979, ‘A Contribution to the Study of Gender Identity: Follow-up’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 60, 433–441.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stoller, R. and Baker, H.: 1973, ‘Two Male Transsexuals in One Family’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 2, 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Volkan, V.: 1976, ‘Aggression Among Transsexuals’, Paper presented at the 129th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Volkan, V.: 1979, ‘Transsexualism: As Examined from the Viewpoint of Internalized Object Relations’, in T. Karascu and C. Socarides (eds.). On Sexuality, International Universities Press, New York, pp. 189–227.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Weitzman, E. et al.: 1970, ‘Identity Diffusion and the Transsexual Resolution’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 151, 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weitzman, E. et al.: 1971, ‘Family Dynamics in Male Transsexualism’, Psychosomatic Medicine 33, 289–299.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie M. Lothstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of LivingHartfordUSA

Personalised recommendations