Advertisement

The Origins of Sexual Identity: A Clinician’s View

  • Stephen B. Levine
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 22)

Abstract

It is not possible to be completely objective about a subject as value-laden and emotionally evocative as sexual preference. Instead of indulging in illusions about my dispassionate, critical thinking in this area, I want to make my biases explicit. The perspective of this essay is clinical. It has evolved over a decade of helping men and women with concerns about their sexual preferences. My clinical bias is developmental. It is based on the assumption that all mental and behavioral phenomena involving sexual preferences are products of the child’s integration of biologic, intrapsychic, and social forces. My perspective is also psychodynamic, because I sense that such traditions place more emphasis on the child’s unique integration of inherent capacities, internal processes, and social influences than do strictly sociologic, behavioral, or biologic perspectives.

Keywords

Sexual Behavior Behavioral Intention Gender Identity Sexual Identity Homosexual Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Barlow, D. H. et al.: 1977, ‘Gender Identity Change in a Transsexual: An Exorcism’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 6, 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell, A.: 1975, ‘Research in Homosexuality: Back to the Drawing Board’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 4, 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bell, A. and Weinberg, S.: 1978, Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women, Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berlin, F. S. and Meinecke, C. F.: 1981, Treatment of Sex Offenders with Antian-drogenic Medication: Conceptualization, Review of Treatment Modalities and Preliminary Findings’, American Journal of Psychiatry 135, 601–607.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bieber, I. et al.: 1962, Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study, Basic Books, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bios, P.: 1979, Adolescent Passage, International Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bobys, R. S. and Laner, M. R.: 1979, ‘On the Stability of Stigmatization: The Case of Ex-homosexual Males’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 8, 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davenport, C. W. and Harrison, S. I.: 1977, ‘Gender Identity Change in a Female Adolescent Transsexual’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 6, 327–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Defries, Z.: 1976, ‘Pseudohomosexuality in Feminist Students’, American Journal of Psychiatry 133, 400–404.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diamond, M.: 1982, ‘Sexual Identity, Monozygotic Twins Reared in Discordant Sex Roles and a BBC Follow-up’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 11, 181–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eisenberg, L.: 1977, ‘Development as a Unifying Concept in Psychiatry’, British Journal of Psychiatry 131, 225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freund, K. et al.: 1974, ‘Measuring Feminine Gender Identity in Homosexual Males’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 3, 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Green, R.: 1979, ‘Childhood Cross Gender Behavior and Subsequent Sexual Preference’, American Journal of Psychiatry 135, 692–697.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harry, J.: 1983, ‘Defeminization and Adult Psychological Well-being Among Male Homosexuals’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 12, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaye, H. E. et al.: 1967, ‘Homosexuality in Women’, Archives of General Psychiatry 17, 626–634.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kestenberg, J.: 1956, ‘Vicissitudes of Female Sexuality’, Journal of The American Psychoanalytic Association 4, 453–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lothstein, L. M.: 1982, ‘Sex Reassignment Surgery: Historical, Bioethical and Theoretical Issues’, American Journal of Psychiatry 139, 417–426.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lothstein, L. and Levine, S.: 1981, ‘Expressive Psychotherapy with Gender Dysphoria Patients’, Archives of General Psychiatry 38, 924–929.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mahler, M. et al.: 1975, The Psychologic Birth of the Human Infant, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meyer, J. and Dupkin, C: 1983, ‘Sadomasochism1’, in W. E. Fann et al. (eds.), Phenomenology and Treatment of Psychosexual Disorders, Spectrum, New York, pp. 13–21.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meyer-Bahlburg, H.: 1977, ‘Sex Hormones and Male Homosexuality in Comparative Perspective’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 6, 297–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Money, J. and Ehrhardt, A.: 1972, Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pattison, E. M. and Pattison, M. L.: 1980, ‘“Ex-Gays”: Religiously Mediated Change in Homosexuals’, American Journal of Psychiatry 137, 1553–1562.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ross, J. M.: 1975, ‘The Development of Paternal Identity: A Critical Review of the Literature on Nurturance and Generativity in Boys and Men’, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 23, 783–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saghir, M. and Robins, E.: 1973, Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scharff, D. E.: 1982, The Sexual Relationship: An Objective Theory View of Sex and the Family, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Boston.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schwartz, M. F. and Masters, W. H.: 1984, ‘The Masters and Johnson Treatment Program for Dissatisfied Homosexual Men’, American Journal of Psychiatry 14, 173–181.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Socarides, C. W.: 1974, ‘Homosexuality’, in S. Arieti and E. B. Brody (eds.), American Handbook of Psychiatry III, Basic Books, New York, pp. 291–315.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Socarides, C. W.: 1979, ‘A Unitary Theory of the Perversions’, in B. Karasu and C. W. Socarides (eds.), On Sexuality, International Universities Press, New York, pp. 161–188.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stoller, R. J.: 1968, Sex and Gender, vol. 1, The Development of Masculinity and Femininity, Jason Aronson, New York.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stoller, R. J.: 1975, Perversion, The Erotic Form of Hatred, Pantheon Books, New York.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stoller, R. J.: 1979, Sexual Excitement: The Dynamics of Erotic Life, Pantheon, New York.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stoller, R. J.: 1980, ‘Problems with the Term “Homosexuality”’, Hillside Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2, 3–25.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thomas, A. and Chess, S.: 1984, ‘Genesis and Evolution of Behavioral Disorders: From Infancy to Early Adult Life’, American Journal of Psychiatry 141, 1–9.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thompson, S. K. and Bentler, P. M.: 1973, ‘A Developmental Study of Gender Constancy and Parent Preference’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 2, 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tyson, P.: 1982, ‘The Developmental Line of Gender Identity, Gender Role and Choice of Love Object’, Journal of American Psychiatric Association 30, 61–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Van Leeuwen, K.: 1966, ‘Pregnancy Envy in the Male’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis 47, 319–324.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Werner, D.: 1979, ‘A Cross-cultural Perspective on Theory and Research on Male Homosexuality’, Journal of Homosexuality 4, 345–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Whitam, F. L.: 1977, ‘Childhood Indicators of Male Homosexuality’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 6, 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Whitam, F. L.: 1980, ‘The Pre-homosexual Male Child in Three Societies: The United States, Guatemala, Brazil’, Archives of Sexual Behavior 9, 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zuger, B.: 1978, ‘Effeminate Behavior Present in Boys from Childhood: Ten Additional Years of Follow-up’, Comprehensive Psychiatry 19, 363–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen B. Levine
    • 1
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations