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On the Ethology of Pain, its Experience and Expression

  • J. A. R. A. M. Van Hooff

Abstract

The question whether animals experience pain has found different answers. The question cannot be answered in as far as it deals with the aspect of subjective experience; this is unaccessible to empirical investigation, for fundamental reasons. Most scientists, however, will accept a ‘postulate of homology’: because sensory and neural processes and structures are organised in essentially similar ways, at least in mammals, they feel bound to assume that these animals know experiences that are homologous to ours, also with respect to the sensation of pain (20). A more modest approach is to investigate the behavioural responses to damaging influences.

Keywords

Unconditional Stimulus Expression Movement Active Avoidance Conditioning Primary Pain Behavioural Routine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. R. A. M. Van Hooff

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