Anyone living in mid-seventeenth century Amsterdam or even outside the city, reading his Bible or his ‘Flavius Josephus’ — and almost anyone with some education owned at least those two books — and reading something about Solomon’s Temple or hearing people speak or preach about it was able to imagine in detail a real building. Rabbi Jacob Jehuda Leon had taken care of that. He had published an extensive description of the Temple in no less than eight languages, and in 1642 he was able to add the proud mention on the title page of his Afbeeldinge vanden Tempel Salomonis (which had to be reprinted within two years) ‘the model of which is in the possession of the author, as can be seen at his house’.


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  1. 1.
    Livro de Bet Haim do Kahal de Bet Yahacob. Original text. Introd., notes and index by W.Chr. Pieterse, Assen 1970, 32 ff. (Publications of the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, nr. 3.) In 1616 he appears already to be widower, see 89.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek 6, 1924, col. 941–943, s.v. Leon Templo; Hoofdstukken uit de geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland, Zutphen 1929, 120–125; ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen van de tempel van Salomo’, Historia. Maandschrift voor Geschiedenis en Kunst geschiedenis 4 (1938), 277–282, 307–310, 381–385; Id.5 (1939), 84–89.Google Scholar
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    After World War II still appeared: J.S. da Silva Rosa, ‘Jacob Juda Leon (Templo), ± 1600–1675’, published posthumously by J. Meijer in Ha-Binjan/De Opbouw 2 (1949), 26–28. As a sequel to the Dutch version of the text published here: A.K. Offenberg, ‘Bibliography of the Works of Jacob Jehudah Leon (Templo)’, Studia Rosenthaliana 12 (1978), 111–132, in which twenty-one editions of Leon’s work have been described critically, with a census in Europe, America and Israel.Google Scholar
  4. a.
    Shortly after this, but independent of it appeared A. L. Shane, ‘Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon (Templo) of Amsterdam (1603–1675) and his connections with England’, Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, 25 (1977), 120–136.Google Scholar
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    The Jewish Encyclopaedia 8, New York-London 1904, 1–2.Google Scholar
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    This Dedicacão only occurs in one of the two copies which are kept in the library of the Portuguese-Israelite community of Amsterdam, Ets Haim/ Livraria Montezinos and in the copy of the library of the ‘Vereniging Het Spinozahuis’ at Rijnsburg.Google Scholar
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    F. Nagtglas, Levensberichten van Zeeuwen, zijnde een vervolg op P. de la Rue, Geletterd, staatkundig en heldhaftig Zeeland II, Middelburg 1893, 71.Google Scholar
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    He received for the dedication £ 16:13:4. See the same F. Nagtglas, ‘eene rustplaats der ballingen’, in: Toevoegsel Middelburgsche Naamwijzer, 1864.Google Scholar
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    H. Rosenau, ‘Jacob Judah Leon Templo’s Contribution to Architectural Imagery’, Journal of Jewish Studies 23 (1972), 73.Google Scholar
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    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 309.Google Scholar
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    See further F.J. Hoogewoud, ‘Moderne benaderingswijzen van Salomo’s Tempel’, in: De Tempel van Salomo,’s-Gravenhage 1976, 76–100.Google Scholar
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    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 308.Google Scholar
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    H. Rosenau, ‘Jacob Judah Leon Templo’s contribution’, 80.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    About him: J.S. da Silva Rosa, ‘Salom Italia’, published posthumously in Maandblad voor de geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland 1, 1948, 214–222;Google Scholar
  33. a.
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    A. Rubens, Some aspects of Jewish iconography, London 1955, [20].Google Scholar
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    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 307. Zwarts reverses the chronological order of the two versions of the portrait; he argues that Leon is a bit balder in the first version.Google Scholar
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    Based on style and spelling of the French H. Rosenau regards ‘PIT as a Huguenot who had taken refuge in the Netherlands’.Google Scholar
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    S. Kirschstein, Juedische Graphiker aus der Zeit von 1625–1825, Berlin 1918, 11.Google Scholar
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    Encyclopaedia Judaica. Das Judentum in Geschichte und Gegenwart 8, Berlin 1931, col. 680/81. L. Hirschel says the same in: Catalogus tentoonstelling ‘Het geïllustreerde Joodse boek’, Amsterdam 1934, nr. 89a.Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modeilen’, 307.Google Scholar
  42. 39.
    Notarieel Archief Amsterdam, nr. 1780, 1210–1211. I am indebted to Dr. W.Chr. Pieterse for her help with consultation of files in the Amsterdam Municipal Archives.Google Scholar
  43. 40.
    Apart from the copy in the National and University Library in Jerusalem I am only familiar with a copy of this edition in the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana in Amsterdam. The history of this copy is curious and tragic. On the eve of World War II the keeper then in charge of the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana drs. L. Hirschel, had handed it over to Jacob Zwarts for study. During the war Zwarts disappeared together with thousands of his fellow-sufferers in the hell of the third Reich. This is why the book had been missing from the library for twenty-five years. A few years ago J. van Velzen from Diemen reported that he had bought it with the library’s stamp on it. He parted with if for a small consideration.Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    See the illustration in: M.H. Gans, Memorboek. Platenatlas van het leven der Joden in Nederland van de Middeleeuwen tot 1940, Baarn 1971, 37.Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    Also in the English translation of Leon’s work by M.P. Decastro of 1778 the address of the place where the model could be seen, was filled in in ink. See W.J. Hughan, ‘A very rare edition of Leon’, Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge XII (1899), 159.Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    Municipal Archives The Hague. The discovery had been made by Mr. S. van Veldhuizen. I am indebted to drs. J.J. Cahen, keeper of the Jewish Historical Museum in Amsterdam, for his drawing my attention to this.Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Notarieel Archief Amsterdam, nr. 2210, 33–34, 119–121.Google Scholar
  48. 45.
    Centraal blad voor Israelieten in Nederland, 52:45,7 January 1937, 2.Google Scholar
  49. 46.
    This letter was published by J.A. van Praag (together with a second original letter by Leon) in 1956 with an introduction and linguistic commentary, ‘Jacob Judá León Templo y Guillermo II, principe de Orange’ in: Clavileño. Revista de la Asociacion Internacional de Hispanismo, 7:41 (1956), 7–15.Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    I am indebted to Mrs. drs. M.H. Mirande-de Boer, who helped me with the translation of Leon’s letter.Google Scholar
  51. 48.
    I am indebted to drs. J.J. Braakenburg, Heerenveen, who helped me with checking in a great number of German libraries.Google Scholar
  52. 49.
    W.Chr. Pieterse, Daniel Levi de Barrios als geschiedschrijver, 99–100.Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Ibid., 112, note 3.Google Scholar
  54. 51.
    See note 16.Google Scholar
  55. 52.
    See note 3.Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    L. Wolf, ‘Anglo-Jewish coats of arms’, Transactions (of) The Jewish Historical Society of England 2 (1894/95), 157. The obscure relationship which Leon was said to have had with the Freemasons’ lodge in England, the main topic of Wolf’s article, cannot be pursued further, see note 3, the article by A.L. Shane.Google Scholar
  57. 54.
    W. Herrmann, ‘Unknown designs for the ‘Temple of Jerusalem’ by Claude Perrault’, in: Essays presented to Rudolf Wittkower. I: Essays in the History of Architecture, London 1967, 149, note 47. This article has more to offer than its title would suggest. It provides an extensive overview of the Temple constructions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with a very complete source reference.Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    The whole epitaph has been copied by D.H. de Castro Mz. in his collection ‘Grafschriften op de oude afdeling der Portugees-Israelitiesche begraaf-plaats te Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, voltooid in 1897’, carton 11, nr. 78 (MS 49 A 10–12 in the library of the Portuguese-Israelite community in Amsterdam, Ets Haim/Livraria Montezinos).Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Hoofdstukken’, 122.Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    W. Herrmann, ‘Unknown designs’, 149, note 47.Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    De Republyk der Hebreen, of gemeenebest der Joden onder de wet der ceremonien en dienstbaar Jerusalem, vervolgd op de drie boeken van de heer Petrus Cunaeus. Uyt de naargelaten schriften van wijlen H.W. Goeree… by een versamelt door een lief-hebber der Joodse oudheden II, t’ Amsterdam, by Wilhelmus Goeree 1683, preface, f.** 4 recto and verso.Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    Especially the well-known collegiant Adam Boreel, who closely cooperated with Leon and who supported the latter financially. See also the article by R.H. Popkin, Some Aspects…, in the present volume, 8.Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Vol. 2, preface. A.L. Shane, art.cit., 128.Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Idem, 128–136.Google Scholar
  65. 62.
    I am indebted to drs. J.F. van Agt, who has drawn my attention to this advertisement.Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    A. Rubens, Some aspects of Jewish iconography, [20].Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    M. Keyser, Komt dat zien! De Amsterdamse kermis in de negentiende eeuw, Amsterdam 1976, 198–199.Google Scholar
  68. a.
    See also J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’ in Historia 5 (1939), 86–89. For several years Mr. F.J. Putto (Amsterdam) is making a true copy of Leon’s model, under the auspices of the Biblical Museum.Google Scholar
  69. 65.
    See note 3 A.K. Offenberg, art.cit., for extensive descriptions and census.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Offenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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