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Abstract

Anyone living in mid-seventeenth century Amsterdam or even outside the city, reading his Bible or his ‘Flavius Josephus’ — and almost anyone with some education owned at least those two books — and reading something about Solomon’s Temple or hearing people speak or preach about it was able to imagine in detail a real building. Rabbi Jacob Jehuda Leon had taken care of that. He had published an extensive description of the Temple in no less than eight languages, and in 1642 he was able to add the proud mention on the title page of his Afbeeldinge vanden Tempel Salomonis (which had to be reprinted within two years) ‘the model of which is in the possession of the author, as can be seen at his house’.

Keywords

Spanish Translation Latin Translation Original Letter Hebrew Letter Municipal Archive 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Livro de Bet Haim do Kahal de Bet Yahacob. Original text. Introd., notes and index by W.Chr. Pieterse, Assen 1970, 32 ff. (Publications of the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, nr. 3.) In 1616 he appears already to be widower, see 89.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek 6, 1924, col. 941–943, s.v. Leon Templo; Hoofdstukken uit de geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland, Zutphen 1929, 120–125; ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen van de tempel van Salomo’, Historia. Maandschrift voor Geschiedenis en Kunst geschiedenis 4 (1938), 277–282, 307–310, 381–385; Id.5 (1939), 84–89.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    After World War II still appeared: J.S. da Silva Rosa, ‘Jacob Juda Leon (Templo), ± 1600–1675’, published posthumously by J. Meijer in Ha-Binjan/De Opbouw 2 (1949), 26–28. As a sequel to the Dutch version of the text published here: A.K. Offenberg, ‘Bibliography of the Works of Jacob Jehudah Leon (Templo)’, Studia Rosenthaliana 12 (1978), 111–132, in which twenty-one editions of Leon’s work have been described critically, with a census in Europe, America and Israel.Google Scholar
  4. a.
    Shortly after this, but independent of it appeared A. L. Shane, ‘Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon (Templo) of Amsterdam (1603–1675) and his connections with England’, Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, 25 (1977), 120–136.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    The Jewish Encyclopaedia 8, New York-London 1904, 1–2.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    H. Kellenbenz, Sefardim an der unteren Elbe. Ihre wirtschaftliche und politische Bedeutung vom Ende des 16. bis zum Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts, Wiesbaden 1958 (Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Beiheft Nr. 40.)Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    A. Cassuto, ‘Neue Funde zur ältesten Geschichte der portugiesischen Juden in Hamburg’, Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland 3 (1931), 58–72.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Vida de Ishac Huziel, Jaxam del Kahal Kados A mstelodamo en la Sinagoga de Bet Yahacob, chapter 3, 48–49. The indication of chapters and pagination are very complicated in De Barrios’ work; for this part they are similar in the copies A and B. The pagination in pencil is in A 450–451, in B 502–503; for this query see W.Chr. Pieterse, Daniel Levi de Barrios als geschiedschrijver van de Portugees-Israelietische Gemeente te Amsterdam in zijn ‘Triumpho del Govierno popular’, Amsterdam 1968, 31–32.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    Livro de Bet Haim, 41, 86, 98, 105, 130, 141, 149, 174, 179.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    J.Chr. Wolfius, Bibliotheca Hebraea III, Hamburgi et Lipsiae 1727, 460–465. The brochure mentioned entered the collection of the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana in Amsterdam some years ago.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Y.H. Yerushalmi, From Spanish court to Italian ghetto. Isaac Cardoso: a study in seventeenth-century messianism and Jewish apologetics, New York-London 1971 (Columbia University studies in Jewish history, culture, and institutions, nr. 1).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    This Dedicacão only occurs in one of the two copies which are kept in the library of the Portuguese-Israelite community of Amsterdam, Ets Haim/ Livraria Montezinos and in the copy of the library of the ‘Vereniging Het Spinozahuis’ at Rijnsburg.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    I. Maarsen, ‘Joodse wetenschap en letterkunde tot 1795’, in: Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland I, onder redactie van H. Brugmans en A. Frank, Amsterdam 1940, 521.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    M.C. Paraira en J.S. da Silva Rosa, Gedenkschrift uitgegeven ter gelegen-heid van het 300-jarig bestaan der onderwijsinrichtingen Talmud Tora en Ets Haim bij de Port. Israel. Gemeente te Amsterdam, published in Amsterdam in 1916; reprinted on the initiative of the Genootschap Ets Haim, in: J. Meijer, Encyclopaedia Sefardica Neerlandica 2, Amsterdam 1950–51, 78–79.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Kellenbenz, Sefardim, 34, 43.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    J. Zwarts, ‘De Joodse Gemeenten buiten Amsterdam’, in: Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland, 389.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    De briefwisseling van Constantijn Huygens (1608–1687) 6 (1663–1687) published by J.A. Worp,’s-Gravenhage 1917 (Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën 32), 356, nr. 6954.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    The Dutch text ends with an addendum which is in the correct place in the Spanish edition; the Dutch edition does not fit in seven gatherings, so a single leaf had to be added; in the Spanish edition this problem has been solved.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    F. Nagtglas, Levensberichten van Zeeuwen, zijnde een vervolg op P. de la Rue, Geletterd, staatkundig en heldhaftig Zeeland II, Middelburg 1893, 71.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    He received for the dedication £ 16:13:4. See the same F. Nagtglas, ‘eene rustplaats der ballingen’, in: Toevoegsel Middelburgsche Naamwijzer, 1864.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    H. Rosenau, ‘Jacob Judah Leon Templo’s Contribution to Architectural Imagery’, Journal of Jewish Studies 23 (1972), 73.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 309.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    See further F.J. Hoogewoud, ‘Moderne benaderingswijzen van Salomo’s Tempel’, in: De Tempel van Salomo,’s-Gravenhage 1976, 76–100.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    J. Lundius, Heiligdommen, godsdiensten en gewoonten der oude Jooden. Uyt het Hoogduits vert, door I. Le Long I, Amsterdam 1726, 392.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Menasseh Ben Israel, Espérance d’Israel. Introduction, traduction et notes par Henri Méchoulan et Gérard Nahon, Paris 1979, 87–88.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 279 en 282.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Ha-measef 4, Berlin-Königsberg 1785, 297–301.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 308.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    See for example C. Roth, ‘Jewish art and artists before Emancipation’ in: Jewish art. An illustrated history. Rev. ed. by B. Narkiss, London 1971, 181.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    G. Surenhusius, Mischna sive totius Hebraeorum juris, rituum, antiquita-tum, ac legum oralium systerna I, Amstelaedami 1698, ** 4 recto and verso.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    H. Rosenau, ‘Jacob Judah Leon Templo’s contribution’, 80.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    About him: J.S. da Silva Rosa, ‘Salom Italia’, published posthumously in Maandblad voor de geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland 1, 1948, 214–222;Google Scholar
  33. a.
    M. Narkiss, The oeuvre of the Jewish engraver Salom Italia’, Tarbiz, a Quarterly for Jewish Studies 25 (1956), 441–451;Google Scholar
  34. b.
    M. Narkiss, The oeuvre of the Jewish engraver Salom Italia’, Tarbiz, a Quarterly for Jewish Studies 26 (1957), 77–101 (in Hebrew with a summary in English).Google Scholar
  35. 32.
    A. Wolf, ‘Die Portraits des Jacob Jehuda Leone’, Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums 44, N.F. 8 (1900), 41–43.Google Scholar
  36. 33.
    A. Rubens, Some aspects of Jewish iconography, London 1955, [20].Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’, 307. Zwarts reverses the chronological order of the two versions of the portrait; he argues that Leon is a bit balder in the first version.Google Scholar
  38. 35.
    Based on style and spelling of the French H. Rosenau regards ‘PIT as a Huguenot who had taken refuge in the Netherlands’.Google Scholar
  39. 36.
    S. Kirschstein, Juedische Graphiker aus der Zeit von 1625–1825, Berlin 1918, 11.Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    Encyclopaedia Judaica. Das Judentum in Geschichte und Gegenwart 8, Berlin 1931, col. 680/81. L. Hirschel says the same in: Catalogus tentoonstelling ‘Het geïllustreerde Joodse boek’, Amsterdam 1934, nr. 89a.Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modeilen’, 307.Google Scholar
  42. 39.
    Notarieel Archief Amsterdam, nr. 1780, 1210–1211. I am indebted to Dr. W.Chr. Pieterse for her help with consultation of files in the Amsterdam Municipal Archives.Google Scholar
  43. 40.
    Apart from the copy in the National and University Library in Jerusalem I am only familiar with a copy of this edition in the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana in Amsterdam. The history of this copy is curious and tragic. On the eve of World War II the keeper then in charge of the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana drs. L. Hirschel, had handed it over to Jacob Zwarts for study. During the war Zwarts disappeared together with thousands of his fellow-sufferers in the hell of the third Reich. This is why the book had been missing from the library for twenty-five years. A few years ago J. van Velzen from Diemen reported that he had bought it with the library’s stamp on it. He parted with if for a small consideration.Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    See the illustration in: M.H. Gans, Memorboek. Platenatlas van het leven der Joden in Nederland van de Middeleeuwen tot 1940, Baarn 1971, 37.Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    Also in the English translation of Leon’s work by M.P. Decastro of 1778 the address of the place where the model could be seen, was filled in in ink. See W.J. Hughan, ‘A very rare edition of Leon’, Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge XII (1899), 159.Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    Municipal Archives The Hague. The discovery had been made by Mr. S. van Veldhuizen. I am indebted to drs. J.J. Cahen, keeper of the Jewish Historical Museum in Amsterdam, for his drawing my attention to this.Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Notarieel Archief Amsterdam, nr. 2210, 33–34, 119–121.Google Scholar
  48. 45.
    Centraal blad voor Israelieten in Nederland, 52:45,7 January 1937, 2.Google Scholar
  49. 46.
    This letter was published by J.A. van Praag (together with a second original letter by Leon) in 1956 with an introduction and linguistic commentary, ‘Jacob Judá León Templo y Guillermo II, principe de Orange’ in: Clavileño. Revista de la Asociacion Internacional de Hispanismo, 7:41 (1956), 7–15.Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    I am indebted to Mrs. drs. M.H. Mirande-de Boer, who helped me with the translation of Leon’s letter.Google Scholar
  51. 48.
    I am indebted to drs. J.J. Braakenburg, Heerenveen, who helped me with checking in a great number of German libraries.Google Scholar
  52. 49.
    W.Chr. Pieterse, Daniel Levi de Barrios als geschiedschrijver, 99–100.Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Ibid., 112, note 3.Google Scholar
  54. 51.
    See note 16.Google Scholar
  55. 52.
    See note 3.Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    L. Wolf, ‘Anglo-Jewish coats of arms’, Transactions (of) The Jewish Historical Society of England 2 (1894/95), 157. The obscure relationship which Leon was said to have had with the Freemasons’ lodge in England, the main topic of Wolf’s article, cannot be pursued further, see note 3, the article by A.L. Shane.Google Scholar
  57. 54.
    W. Herrmann, ‘Unknown designs for the ‘Temple of Jerusalem’ by Claude Perrault’, in: Essays presented to Rudolf Wittkower. I: Essays in the History of Architecture, London 1967, 149, note 47. This article has more to offer than its title would suggest. It provides an extensive overview of the Temple constructions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with a very complete source reference.Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    The whole epitaph has been copied by D.H. de Castro Mz. in his collection ‘Grafschriften op de oude afdeling der Portugees-Israelitiesche begraaf-plaats te Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, voltooid in 1897’, carton 11, nr. 78 (MS 49 A 10–12 in the library of the Portuguese-Israelite community in Amsterdam, Ets Haim/Livraria Montezinos).Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    J. Zwarts, ‘Hoofdstukken’, 122.Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    W. Herrmann, ‘Unknown designs’, 149, note 47.Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    De Republyk der Hebreen, of gemeenebest der Joden onder de wet der ceremonien en dienstbaar Jerusalem, vervolgd op de drie boeken van de heer Petrus Cunaeus. Uyt de naargelaten schriften van wijlen H.W. Goeree… by een versamelt door een lief-hebber der Joodse oudheden II, t’ Amsterdam, by Wilhelmus Goeree 1683, preface, f.** 4 recto and verso.Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    Especially the well-known collegiant Adam Boreel, who closely cooperated with Leon and who supported the latter financially. See also the article by R.H. Popkin, Some Aspects…, in the present volume, 8.Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Vol. 2, preface. A.L. Shane, art.cit., 128.Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Idem, 128–136.Google Scholar
  65. 62.
    I am indebted to drs. J.F. van Agt, who has drawn my attention to this advertisement.Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    A. Rubens, Some aspects of Jewish iconography, [20].Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    M. Keyser, Komt dat zien! De Amsterdamse kermis in de negentiende eeuw, Amsterdam 1976, 198–199.Google Scholar
  68. a.
    See also J. Zwarts, ‘Oud-Hollandse modellen’ in Historia 5 (1939), 86–89. For several years Mr. F.J. Putto (Amsterdam) is making a true copy of Leon’s model, under the auspices of the Biblical Museum.Google Scholar
  69. 65.
    See note 3 A.K. Offenberg, art.cit., for extensive descriptions and census.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Offenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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