The Search for Universality in the Ethics of Human Research: Andrew C. Ivy, Henry K. Beecher, and the Legacy of Nuremberg

  • Kenneth L. Vaux
  • Stanley G. Schade
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 28)

Abstract

The first ethical requirement of human studies is that of scientific excellence. Meaningful truth must be sought. This means three things: a worthy goal, sound design, and competent execution. Beyond scientific excellence, studies must possess two additional ingredients to meet the ethical requirement. We will call these the humanistic and altruistic imperatives. Humanistic law requires that we do not deliberately harm another. This is the negative dimension of ethics: non-maleficence. These evaluative perspectives built on the sure foundation of good science should be found whenever clinical investigations are undertaken in universities or hospitals. The members of institutional review boards, representing various disciplines, should assure that this tripartite examination is made of every protocol. Good science, protective and affirmative ethics should always be present. The assumption of this paper is that science itself is a value. Therefore, only excellent science can be ethical and only ethical science is of value.

Keywords

Rheumatic Fever Ethical Dimension Good Science Ethical Requirement Administrative Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Beecher, H. K.: 1966, ‘Ethics and Clinical Research’, New England Journal of Medicine 274, 1354–1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research: 1978, The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research, US Government Printing Office, Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (now Health and Human Services), Washington, DC, publication # (OS) 78–0012. Appendix 1–0013, Appendix 2–004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ivy, A.: 1948, ‘The History and Ethics of the Use of Human Subjects in Medical Experiments’, Science 108, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kant, I.: 1787, ‘The Critique of Pure Reason’, preface to the Second Edition, Vol. 42, Great Books of Western World, (ed.) Robert Maynard Hutchins, p. 6, 1952.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kant, I: 1949, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, pp. 59–60.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matthew 5: 48.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    McNeil, R. G., Parker, S. G., Sox, H. C., and Tuersky, A.: 1982, ‘On the Elicitation of Preferences for Alternative Therapies’, New England Journal of Medicine 306, 1259–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nuremberg Code, cited in Beecher, H.: 1970, Research and the Individual, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, pp. 227–232.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Protection of Human Subjects, 45 Code of Federal Regulations, 46, Office of Protection from Research Risks Reports, March 8, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth L. Vaux
    • 1
  • Stanley G. Schade
    • 1
  1. 1.University of IllinoisChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations