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Phenomenology and Conceptual Psychology

  • Katherine Arens
Chapter
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Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 113)

Abstract

The tenets of conceptual psychology already elucidated in the work of Kant, Herbart, and Hermann Paul diverge from strict empiricism (such as Fechner’s and Wundt’s), and from a human science like Dilthey’s. Phenomenology, the science of the phenomena within the mind, also had to differentiate itself from this psychology, despite similarities in their procedures.

Keywords

Intentional Object Mental Phenomenon Conceptual Psychology Phenomenological Reduction Empirical Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    For a biography and overview of the work of Franz Brentano, along with an assessment of his influence on his time (especially as compared to Wundt), see Antos C. Rancurello, A Study of Franz Brentano: His Psychological Standpoint and His Significance in the History of Psychology (New York: Academic Press, 1968), which includes an extensive annotated bibliography. For an overview of the history of interpretations of Brentano’s work up to quite recently.Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    see the selection and bibliography compiled by Linda L. McAlister, ed., The Philosophy of Brentano (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1977).Google Scholar
  3. 1b.
    For a study comparing major terminology in the work of Brentano and Freud, see James Ralph Barclay, Franz Brentano and Sigmund Freud: A Comparative Study in the Evolution of Psychological Thought (diss., U. of Michigan, 1959). For two more recent studies.Google Scholar
  4. 1c.
    see Raymond E. Francher, “Brentano’s Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint and Freud’s Early Metapsychology,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 13, No. 3 (July 1977): 207–227.Google Scholar
  5. 1d.
    and David E. Leary, “From Act Psychology to Probabilistic Functionalism: The Place of Egon Brunswik in the History of Psychology,” in Psychology in Twentieth-Century Thought and Society, eds. Mitchell G. Ash and William R. Woodward (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987), who traces the influence of Brentano as a functionalist and logical positivist.Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    For an overview of older scholarship of Husserl, including discussions of Husserl’s psychology by Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, see Joseph J. Kockelmans, ed., Phenomenology: The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl and Its Interpretation (Garden City: Doubleday/Anchor, 1967).Google Scholar
  7. 2a.
    For an overview of the interpretations of Husserl’s Logical Investigations see J.N. Mohanty, ed., Readings on Edmund Husserl’s “Logical Investigations” (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1977).Google Scholar
  8. 2b.
    A discussion of Brentano’s and Husserl’s work as it pertains to the social sciences is by Maurice Roche, Phenomenology, Language and the Social Sciences (London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973). For an overview of the literature on the central problem in Husserl research, see Harrison Hall, “The Philosophical Significance of Husserl’s Theory of Intentionality,” Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology, Vol. 13, No. 1 (January 1982): 79–84.Google Scholar
  9. 3.
    See Edmund Husserl, Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins, ed. Martin Heidegger, 2nd ed. (Tübingen: M. Niemeyer, 1980).Google Scholar
  10. 3a.
    and Franz Brentano, Philosophische Untersuchungen zu Zeit, Raum und Kontinuum, eds. A. Kastil, S. Körner, and R. Christholm (Hamburg: Meiner, 1976).Google Scholar
  11. 4.
    Franz Brentano, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, ed. Linda L. McAlister, (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. 4a.
    Franz Brentano, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint,New York: Humanities Press, 1973), translated from the fullest extant edition.Google Scholar
  13. 4b.
    Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte, ed. Oskar Kraus, (Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1924/1955) [=PES in text]; Edmund Husserl, Phenomenological Psychology: Lectures, Summer Semester, 1925, trans. John Scanion (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1977) from the Phänomenologische Psychologie: Vorlesungen Sommersemester 1925 [=Husserliana, Bd. IX], ed. Walter Biemel (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1962) [=PhP in text]. Husserl’s most extensive Statement of the position of psychology with respect to phenomenology is found in The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, trans.Google Scholar
  14. 4c.
    David Carr (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970 [1954]), a work in progress from 1934 to Husserl’s death in 1938. Details vary from the presentation in the Phenomenological Psychology, but not the fundamental positions of the two disciplines.Google Scholar
  15. 5.
    For general discussions of Brentano’s work by his students, see Oskar Kraus mit Carl Stumpf und Edmund Husserl, Franz Brentano: Zur Kenntnis seines Lebens und seiner Lehre (München: C.H. Beck, 1919).Google Scholar
  16. 5a.
    ] and Alfred Kastil, Die Philosophie Franz Brentanos: Eine Einführung in seine Lehre (München; Leo Lehnen, 1951).Google Scholar
  17. 5b.
    For discussions of his later influence, see Howard O. Eaton, The Austrian Philosophy of Values (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1930).Google Scholar
  18. 5c.
    Gustav Bergman, Realism: A Critique of Brentano and Meinong (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1967).Google Scholar
  19. 5d.
    Jan Srzednicki, Franz Brentano’s Analysis of Truth, (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965).Google Scholar
  20. 5e.
    and Linda L. McAlister, The Development of Franz Brentano’s Ethics (Amsterdam: Editions Rodope, 1982 [1968]). For an overview of work on Husserl.Google Scholar
  21. 5f.
    see: Hermann Noack, ed., Husserl, Wege der Forschung, XL (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1973), for research up to the mid-50’s.Google Scholar
  22. 5g.
    Jan M. Broekman, Phänomenologie und Egologie: Faktisches und transcendentales Ego bei Edmund Husserl (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963), for a comparison with Kant.Google Scholar
  23. 5h.
    Gaston Berger, The ‘Cogito’ in Husserl’s Philosophy (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1972), esp. Chapter 6 on “Husserl, Kant, and Descartes” and the annotated bibliography.Google Scholar
  24. 5i.
    Joseph J. Kockelmans, Edmund Husserl’s Phenomenological Psychology: A Historico-Critical Study (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1978 [1967]), including a brief history of psychology with Herbart, Wundt, Dilthey and Brentano.Google Scholar
  25. 5k.
    Herman Drüe, Edmund Husserl’s System der phänomenologischen Psychologie (Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1963).Google Scholar
  26. 5l.
    Georg Misch, Lebensphilosophie und Phänomenologie: Eine Auseinandersetzung der Dilthey’schen Richtung mit Heidegger und Husserl, 2. Aufl. (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner, 1931).Google Scholar
  27. 6.
    This is the stance represented in Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson (New York: Harper & Row, 1962 [1927]).Google Scholar
  28. 7.
    See Ludwig Wittgenstein, The Blue and Brown Books: Preliminary Studies for the “Philosophical Investigations” (New York: Harper & Row, 1958).Google Scholar
  29. 8.
    This again parallels the differentiation Heidegger will make between ontological statuses of objects, such as “Vorhandenheit” and “Zuhandenheit.”Google Scholar
  30. 9.
    See William R. Woodward on “Fechner’s Panpsychism,” op. cit.Google Scholar
  31. 10.
    Husserl and Heidegger also left this out. Individual mind is not interesting to them.Google Scholar
  32. 11.
    Again, his contemporaries in conceptual psychology tie these together under the rubric of utility.Google Scholar
  33. 12.
    This also constitutes a reduction in the description of language as described by Paul, making it derivative and individual, ignoring communication with the group.Google Scholar
  34. 13.
    This is an alternative notion of objectivity, locating it behind thought, instead of tying it into environment through an intensity of presentation. For developments in this vein, see Lotze’s Logik and Mikrokosmos, op. cit., and Hans Sluga’s explication of logical objects in his book, Gottlob Frege (London: Routledge and Kegen Paul, 1980).Google Scholar
  35. 14.
    For other studies on Husserl’s extensive program, see: Marvin Farber, ed., Philosophical Essays in Memory of Edmund Husserl (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1940; rpt. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  36. 14a.
    Aron Gurwitsch, Phenomenology and the Theory of Science (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  37. 14b.
    Theodor de Boer, The Development of Husserl’s Thought (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1978 [1966]), especially on Husserl’s derivations from Brentano.Google Scholar
  38. 14c.
    Iso Kern, Husserl und Kant: Eine Untersuchung über Husserls Verhältnis zu Kant und zum Neukantismus (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964), especially on Paul Natorp.Google Scholar
  39. 14d.
    Guido de Almeida, Sinn und Inhalt in der genetischen Phänomenologie E. Husserls (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1972), especially on hyletics.Google Scholar
  40. 14e.
    Paul Ricoeur, Husserl: An Analysis of his Phenomenology (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  41. 14f.
    Alwin Diemer, Edmund Husserl: Versuch einer systematischen Darstellung seiner Phänomenologie (Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1956).Google Scholar
  42. 14g.
    Jacques Derrida, Edmund Husserl’s Origin of Geometry”: An Introduction (Stony Brook, NY: Nicolas Hays, 1978).Google Scholar
  43. 14h.
    Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, ed., Soul and Body in Husserlian Phenomenology: Man and Nature (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1983).Google Scholar
  44. 14i.
    Donn Welton, The Origins of Meaning: A Critical Study of the Thresholds of Husserlian Phenomenology (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1983).Google Scholar
  45. 14k.
    William R. McKenna, Husserl’s “Introductions to Phenomenology”: Interpretation and Critique (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982).Google Scholar
  46. 14l.
    and David Woodruff Smith and Ronald McIntyre, Husserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning, and Language (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1982).Google Scholar
  47. 15.
    For the clearest definition of the phenomenological reduction, see Husserl’s The Idea of Phenomenology, trans. William P. Alston and George Nakhnikian (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Arens
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Germanic LanguagesUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

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