This chapter is of a somewhat different nature than the rest of this book since it does not present mathematical tools for linguistic analysis, or show successful applications of such tools to linguistic problems. It is concerned with some of the most difficult issues in philosophical and linguistic semantics, which for a long time have been and still are central to the theory of meaning and interpretation of natural language. Various analyses of these issues have been proposed, using different mathematical tools, but at least in the present state of the art there is no single account of these puzzles which is commonly received and recognized as the right solution. The core of these issues is outlined here without much formalization, only to provide some initial understanding of what is at stake. In Section 3 a simple method is presented to analyze intensionality in natural language, and the discussion in subsequent sections may aid in appreciating the possibilities and limitations of different mathematical methods for linguistic analysis.
KeywordsAccessibility Relation Predicate Logic Contextual Parameter Intensional Model Belief Report
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