The mystical ideal and the humanistic ideal within the world of ideals in the sciences
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Only in its deeper modes of thinking is the mind able to give birth to the humanistic ideal and to those convictions from which all progress springs, that is, progress with respect to any mode of human existence in which ethical concerns have been deepened. It is evident, however, that there is no way leading from the knowledge or cognition of what IS to the knowledge or cognition of what OUGHT TO BE. In fact, science can only be pursued by people who are wholly convinced of their aspirations to search for truth and understanding, because only commitment to real, profound aims and values confers an essential meaning to our existence and to our actions. Nevertheless, the knowledge obtained by natural science with its significant influence on the thinking of human beings and on practical life has weakened the religious sensibility of people. And, because of the traditionally close relation between religion and morality, this implies that the intensities of ethical sensibility and of ethical concern have likewise seriously decreased. In this connexion it should be emphasized that the ethical claim is not only a matter of religion, but rather the most important Good of humanity that has ever been transmitted.