Advertisement

Helicobacter pylori, acid, gastritis, atrophy and progression to cancer: a critical view

  • J. W. Freston

Abstract

The risk of developing gastric cancer is now generally recognized to be strongly influenced by the presence of H. pylori gastritis. The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified H. pylori as a Group 1, or definite carcinogen1. This classification resulted largely from epidemiological studies that showed an increased cancer risk in people infected with H. pylori. The rate of H. pylori infection parallels that of gastric adenocarcinoma in different countries2. Three serological cohort studies have demonstrated an increased risk for gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected people3–5. The odds ratio for gastric adenocarcinoma in H. pylori-infected individuals in these prospective studies of different populations ranged from 1.2 to 6.0, with the highest figure found in Japanese Americans living in Hawaii3.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Gastric Cancer Pylorus Infection Intestinal Metaplasia Atrophic Gastritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Schistosomes, Liver Flukes and Helicobacter pylori. Vol. 61 of IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1994.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eurogast Study Group. An international association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. Lancet. 1993;341:1359–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nomura A, Stemmermann GN, Chyou P, Ikuki K, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese Americans in Hawaii. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1132–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F et al. Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. Br Med J. 1991;302:1302–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1127–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Kleanthous H et al. Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Res. 1995;55:2111–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuipers EJ, Uyterlinde AM, Pena AS et al. Long-term sequelae of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Lancet. 1995;345:1525–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Correa P. Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process. Cancer Res. 1992; 52:6735–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Correa P, Haenszel W, Cuello C, Tannenbaum S, Archer M. A model for gastric cancer epidemiology. Lancet. 1975;2:58–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sipponen P, Kekki M, Haapakoski J, Ihamaki T, Siurala M. Gastric cancer risk in chronic atrophic gastritis: statistical calculations of cross-sectional data. Int J Cancer. 1985;35:173–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fontham ETH, Ruiz B, Perez A, Hunter F, Correa P. Determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90:1094–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuipers EJ, Perez-Perez GI, Meuwissen SGM, Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori and atrophic gastritis: importance of the cagA strain. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1777–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crabtree JE, Taylor JD, Wyatt JI et al. Mucosal IgA recognition of Helicobacter pylori 120kDa protein, peptic ulceration, and gastric pathology. Lancet. 1991;338:332–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Telford JL, Ghiara P, Dellorco M et al. Gene structure of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin and evidence of its key role in gastric disease. J Exp Med. 1994; 179:1653–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ihamaki T, Saukkonen M, Siurala M. Long-term observation of subjects with normal mucosa and with superficial gastritis: results of 23–27 years’ follow-up examinations. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1978;13:771–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Correa P, Haenszel W, Cuello C et al. Gastric precancerous process in a high risk population: cohort follow-up. Cancer Res. 1990;50:4737–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Villako K, Kekki M, Maaroos HI et al. Chronic gastritis: progression of inflammation and atrophy in a six-year endoscopic follow-up of a random sample of 142 Estonian urban subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 186(Suppl.): 135–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maaroos HI, Salupere V, Uibo R, Kekki M, Sipponen P. Seven-year follow-up study of chronic gastritis in gastric ulcer patients. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1985;20:198–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jonsson KA, Strom M, Bodemar G, Norrby K. Histologic changes in the gastroduodenal mucosa after long-term medical treatment with Cimetidine or parietal cell vagotomy in patients with juxtapyloric ulcer disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1988;23:433–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Solcia E, Fiocca R, Havu N, Dalvag A, Carlsson R. Gastric endocrine cells and gastritis in patients receiving long-term omeprazole treatment. Digestion. 1992;51(Suppl. 1):82–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lamberts R, Creutzfeldt W, Struber HG, Brunner G, Solcia E. Long-term omeprazole therapy in peptic ulcer disease: gastrin, endocrine cell growth, and gastritis. Gastroenterology. 1993; 104: 1356–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Festen HPM, Jansen JBMJ et al. Efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with omeprazole for refractory reflux esophagitis. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuipers EJ, Lee A, Klinkenberg-Knol EL, Meuwissen SGM. The development of atrophic gastritis — Helicobacter pylori and the effects of acid suppressive therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995; 9:331–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuipers EJ, Lundell L, Klinkenberg-Knol EC et al. Atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux esophagitis treated with omeprazole or fundoplication. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1018–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Logan RPH, Walker MM, Misiewicz JJ, Gummett PA, Karim QN, Baron JH. Changes in the intragastric distribution of Helicobacter pylori during treatment with omeprazole. Gut. 1995;36: 12–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dunn BE, Phadnis SH, Henderson J. Induction of gastric dyspepsia by H. felis in p53-deficient mice. Gastroenterology. 1996;110:A99(abstract).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lundegardh G, Ekbom A, McLaughlin JK, Nyren O. Gastric cancer risk after vagotomy. Gut. 1994;35:946–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moller H, Nissen A, Mosbech J. Use of Cimetidine and other peptic ulcer drugs in Denmark 1977–1990 with analysis of the risk of gastric cancer among Cimetidine users. Gut. 1992;33: 1166–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moller H, Toftgaard C. Gastric cancer occurrence in patients previously treated for peptic ulcer disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994;6:1104–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Colin Jones DG, Langman MJ, Lawson DH, Logan RF, Paterson KR, Vessey MR Postmarketing surveillance of the safety of Cimetidine: 10 year mortality report. Gut. 1992;33:1280–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, D’Avanzo B. Histamine-2-receptor antagonists and gastric cancer: update and note on latency and covariates. Nutrition. 1992;8:177–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Langman MJS. Postmarketing surveillance and the examination of the long-term safety of antiulcer drugs. Bailliere’s Clin Gastroenterol. 1993;7:183–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aarimaa M, Soderstrom KO, Kalimo H, Inberg M. Morphology and function of the parietal cells after proximal selective vagotomy in duodenal ulcer patients. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1984; 19: 787–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cuesta Valentin MA, Doblas Domínguez M, Rodrigez Alonso M, Bengoechea Gonzalez E. Vagal regeneration after parietal cell vagotomy: an experimental study in dogs. World J Surg. 1987; 11: 94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Correa P, Miller MJS. Helicobacter pylori and gastric atrophy — cancer paradoxes. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:17–18.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brones F, Ruiz B, Correa P et al. Helicobacter pylori causes hyperproliferation of the gastric epithelium: pre- and post-eradication indices of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88:1870–5.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lynch DAF, Mapstone NP, Clark AMT et al. Cell proliferation in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and the effects of eradication therapy. Gut. 1995;36:346–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bechi P, Brandi ML, Fabiani S, Benvenuti F, Cianchi R. Nitric oxide involvement in Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110:A63(abstract).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crabtree JE, Wyatt JI, Trejdosiewicz LK et al. Interleukin-8 expression in Helicobacter pylori infected, normal and neoplastic gastroduodenal mucosa. J Clin Pathol. 1994;47:61–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moss SF, Calam J, Agarwal B, Wang S, Holt PR. Induction of gastric epithelial apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori. Gut. 1996;38:498–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jones NL, Yeger H, Cutz E, Gherman PM. Helicobacter pylori induces apoptosis of gastric antral epithelial cells in vivo. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110:A933(abstract).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peek RM, Moss SF, Tham KT et al. Infection with H. pylori CagA+ strains dissociates gastric epithelial proliferation from apoptosis. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110:A575(abstract).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bedi A, Pasricha PJ, Akhtar AJ et al. Inhibition of apoptosis during development of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1995;55:1811–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moss SF, Scholes J, Wang S, Holt PR. Progressively disordered apoptosis during the multistep process of colorectal carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 1995; 107:A511 (abstract).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lauwers GY, Scott GV, Hendricks J. Immunohistochemical evidence of aberrant bcl-2 protein expression in gastric epithelial dysplasia. Cancer. 1994;73:2900–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bravo LE, Mannick EE, Zhang XJ, Ruiz B, Correa P, Miller MJ. H. pylori infection is associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, nitrotyrosine and DNA damage. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:A63(abstract).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fukuda T, Arakawa T, Fujiwara Y, Nakagawa K, Uno H, Watanabe T. Nitric oxide induces apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells in vitro. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110:Al 11 (abstract).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rieder G, Hatz RA, Stolte M, Enders G. INOS in H. pylori-associated gastritis: possible roles in carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110: A1002(abstract).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stachura J, Konturek JW, Karczewska E, Domschke W. Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis in duodenal ulcer patients. Gastroenterology. 1996; 110A: 1010(abstract).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers and Axcan Pharma 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Freston

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations