Theories of vaccination for Helicobacter pylori
Successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection leading to cure of peptic ulceration has led to intensive antimicrobical therapy involving combinations of antibiotics on a very large scale. However, the failures of chemotherapy due to compliance, cost, development of resistant organisms, the very high global prevalence of H. pylori infection, and its association with gastric malignancy provide a compelling case for considering other preventive strategies. Recent insights into the nature of antigen uptake by mucosal surfaces and recognition by T cells have suggested new strategies for antigen delivery by oral vaccines, for overcoming oral tolerance and for enhancing mucosal immune responses. The concept of developing an oral vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection in humans however, poses several questions. Why doesn’t the readily detected antibody response found in infected patients kill the organism? Why doesn’t previous infection protect against reinfection? Given the finding that H. pylori infection occurs in infancy or early childhood in developing countries, will immunization of already-infected populations provide any therapeutic benefit? Are there concerns about the ability of H. pylori vaccines to eliminate all the Helicobacter strains?
KeywordsPylorus Infection Mucosal Immune Response Oral Vaccine Oral Immunization Edible Vaccine
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 6.Radcliff FJ, Ramsay AJ, Lee A. Failure of immunisation against Helicobacter infection in IL-4 deficient mice: evidence for a TH2 immune response as the basis for protective immunity. Gastroenterology. 1995;939:A3754.Google Scholar
- 9.Dertzbaugh MT, Elson CO. Cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Topics Vaccine Adjuvant Res. 1991;11:119–31.Google Scholar
- 13.Pardoll DM, Beckerieg AM. Exposing the immunology of naked DNA vaccines. Immunology. 1995;3:165–9.Google Scholar
- 17.Leong KH, Ramsay AJ, Boyle DB, Ramshaw IA. Selective induction of immune responses by cytokines coexpressed in recombinant fowlpox virus. J Virol. 1994;8125–30.Google Scholar
- 21.Cuenca R, Blanchard T, Lee C et al. Therapeutic immunization against Helicobacter mustelae infection in naturally infected ferrets. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:A78.Google Scholar