Short and Long Term Survival Analysis in Oncological Research
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Chronic diseases and cancer among these are, nowadays, the main concern of medical research in developed countries. Chronic disease has several characteristics which lead to its complexity and make it difficult to trace its ‘natural history’ and to design clinical trials aiming at evaluating the effectivness of therapeutical strategies. Among these characteristics there are a multifactorial aetiology, nearly non specific and often exogenous, and a long time course with continuous interactions between the host biological system and the surrounding environment. As a consequence, clinical researches accomplished to study cancer treatment usually last a considerable time period and sometimes, as for instance in breast cancer, several years. Their duration may be partitioned into a recruitment stage in which different treatments are administered and a stage of continued observation after accrual has stopped. During both these stages a great amount of information concerning variables possibly capable of influencing the duration, course and outcome of the disease (i.e. prognostic factors) has to be collected ad hoc or has to be attained from data gathered as a subsidiary aspect of an ongoing study. Due allowance for these factors must be made in the statistical analysis performed to evaluate the treatments effectivness in order to enlighten their prognostic role and to make the analysis more sensitive (Armitage and Gehan, 1974; Marubini et al., 1983; Harrel et al., 1985).
KeywordsBreast Cancer Hazard Function Relative Survival Multiplicative Model Partial Likelihood
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