Agroforestry Systems in Morocco: The Case of Olive Tree and Annual Crops Association in Saïs Region

  • Khalid DaouiEmail author
  • Zain El Abidine Fatemi


Climatic change and demography represent important challenges for agronomists. They have to discover more innovative systems and technologies to fulfill food, feeding and energy demands. Such innovations may mime nature and couple advantages from soil biology and plant diversity and mutual advantages between the whole systems: soil—plant and plant to plant and the ecosystems. Forests systems give us examples of natural performances to discover and transfer elsewhere. Because of negative impacts of monoculture oriented intensification, agroforestry (association of perennial—annual crops and livestock) has created an interest in the international scientific community. This Traditional and also natural innovation has many advantages (preservation of biodiversity, diversification of productions, C sequestration, alternative solution for climatic change, enhancing agricultural land profitability, livestock integration, and erosion control). In Morocco such practice is adopted in the mountainous and oasis regions where water and/or land resources are limited. In these locations many crops are mixed and hence their monitoring is complicated. Unfortunately, few scientific studies were dedicated to such system and someone might describe it as primitive, non productive and must be changed. In this chapter focus has been on, the determination of the importance of olive tree and annual crops association in Saïs region, determination of annual crops cultivated between olive trees, agronomic evaluation of the associations, determination of advantages/ disadvantage according to farmers point of view and our observations, and proposition of some technical solutions to perform olive tree—annual crops associations.


Agroforestry Biodiversity Olive tree Monoculture Morocco 


  1. Alary V, Nefzaoui A, Ben JA (2007) Promoting the adoption of natural resource management technology in arid and semi-arid areas: modelling the impact of spineless cactus in alley cropping in Central Tunisia. Agric Syst 94(2):573–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chandelia B, Sharma AK (2009) Performance of some medicinal plants under eucalyptus: a case study from Dehradun Valley, India. Book of Abstracts 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry Agroforestry—The Future of Global Land Use—23–28 August 2009 Nairobi, Kenya, pp 511Google Scholar
  3. Chebli Y, Mrabet R, Chentouf M (2012) Alley cropping as a durable alternative for pasture land development in the drought prone region of Eastern Morocco. Options méditerranéennes 102:449–45Google Scholar
  4. Chryaa AA, El-Mzouri H (2004) Introduction des arbustes fourragers dans les systèmes de production en zones à faible pluviométrie. In Ferchichi A (comp.). Réhabilitation des pâturages et des parcours en milieux méditerranéens = Rangeland and pasture rehabilitation in Mediterranean areas, Zaragoza (Spain): CIHEAM-IAMZ, 2004. p 203–206: (En). (Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes; v. 62). 11. Réunion du Sous-Réseau Ressources Fourragères Méditerranéennes du Réseau Coopératif Interrégional FAO-CIHEAM de Recherche et Développement sur les Pâturages et les Cultures Fourragères, 2002/10/29–2002/11/01, Djerba (Tunisia)Google Scholar
  5. FAO (2008) Climate change, water and food security. Technical background document from expert consultation held on 26–28 February 2008. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Hiemstra JA, Harris DC (1998) A compendium of tree Wageningen/West-Malling, The Netherlands, p 80Google Scholar
  7. Karray JA, Lhomme JP, BenMechlia N, Masmoudi MM (2008) Water balance of the olive tree–annual crop association: a modeling approach. Agric Water Mange 95:575–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Karrou M, Boutfirass M (2007) Gestion intégrée de l’eau en agriculture pluviale. Edition INRA. Maroc. p 64Google Scholar
  9. Kumar M, Lakiang JJ, Gopichand B (2006) Phytotoxic effects of agroforestry tree crops on germination and radicle growth of some food crops of Mizoram. Lyonia 11(2):83–89Google Scholar
  10. Liebman M, Staver CP (2004) Crop diversification for weed management. Chap. 7. In: Liebman M, Mohler CL, Staver CP (eds) Ecological management of agricultural weeds. Cambridge University Press, pp 322–374Google Scholar
  11. Nasrullahzadeh S, Ghassemi–Golezani K, Javanshir A, Valizade M, Shakiba MR (2006) Effects of shade stress on ground cover and grain yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). J Food, Agric Env 5(1):337–340Google Scholar
  12. Palma JHN, Graves AR, Bunce RGH, Burgess PJ, de Filippi R, Keesman KJ, van Keulen H, Liagre F, Mayus M, Moreno G, Reisner Y, Herzog R (2007) Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe. Agric Ecosys Env 119:320–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rosati A, Castellini C, Dal Bosco A, Mugnai C, Paoletti A, Caporali S (2012) Olive agroforestry: an inverse approach to agroforestry. In What priorities for European Agroforestry? First EURAF Conference, Bruxelles 9 October 2012. Book of Abstracts pp 24Google Scholar
  14. Rowe RC, Powelson ML (2002) Potato early dying: management challenges in a changing production environment. Plant Dis 86:1184–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Stirling CM, Williams JH, Black CR, Ong CK (1990) The effect of timing of shade on development, dry matter production and light use efficiency in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under field conditions. Aust J Agric Res 41:633–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Thakur PS, Thakur CL, Thakur A, Dutt V, Joshi H (2009) Potential and suitability of medicinal and aromatic herbs for agroforestry Conditions. Proc 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry—The Future of Global Land Use, 23–28 August 2009 Nairobi, Kenya, pp 290–291Google Scholar
  17. Workman SW, Allen SC (2004) The practice and potential of agroforestry in the Southeastern United States. This document is Circular 1446, one of a series through the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry (CSTAF), School of Forest Resources and ConservationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité de Recherche Agronomie et Physiologie Végétale, Centre Régional de la Recherche Agronomique de MeknèsInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueMeknèsMaroc

Personalised recommendations