Advertisement

Simulation of Carbon Consumption by Biological Models

  • Olaf Pollmann
  • Nelli Pollmann
  • Szilárd Podruzsik
  • Leon van Rensburg
Chapter

Abstract

Since the 1970’s, the shortage of available and usable resources has been seen as the ‘limit to growth’. Since then, the regenerative-ability of the environment—its ability to absorb harmful substances and waste products, has achieved a similar standing. Critical ecological examination must take not only the beginning, but also the end of the production chain into consideration, and thereby give equal weight to the exhaustion of important production materials (energy, raw materials) as well as to the over-stretching of the ecological reproduction capacity of the Earth. To recognize the carbon influence in production processes, it is necessary to balance anthropogenic material streams. For production processes and material recycling, the smallest common and not further reducible indicator is carbon. With knowledge of requirements, it is possible to reduce carbon consumption as a becoming scarce natural resource and fossil fuel which is used in different production process. Therefore, the material fluxes as the product of density (mass by volume) and hydrologic flow velocity (distance by time) must be known for every place and time of the production process. This investigation shows that the annual input and output of carbon in processes are almost balanced. With this carbon-balance, it is possible to identify resources and depressions of carbon and to point out approaches for optimization. Mostly material streams show a flow of valuable materials which can be merchandized if the quality is still right. This also reflects the strategy of cradle-to-cradle. To evaluate these anthropogenic impacts of pollutants on the environment or material streams in the natural circle, it is indispensable to use the benefits of computer systems—in particular artificial intelligence. Most of impact factors are time related and therefore difficult to calculate and to optimize in a natural environmental system. Use of evolutionary algorithms as a part of the artificial intelligence to simulate, estimate and evaluate pollutants or specific materials makes it possible to evaluate the impact on the environment and to optimize material streams in nature or recycling streams.

Keywords

Resources Recycling Cradle-to-cradle Anthropogenic Material Stream Optimization Evolutionary Algorithms 

References

  1. Baccini P, Bader H-P (1996) Regionaler Stoffhaushalt: Erfassung, Bewertung, und Steuerung.  Spektrum, Akademischer, Heidelberg, ISBN 3-86025-235–6Google Scholar
  2. Braungart M, McDonough W (2009) Cradle to cradle-remaking the way we make things. Vintage Books, London, ISBN 978-0-099-53547–8Google Scholar
  3. Gerdes I, Klawonn F, Kruse R (2004) Evolutionäre Algorithmen, Genetische Algorithmen-Strategien und Optimierungsverfahren-Beispielanwendungen. Vieweg Verlag Wiesbaden, ISBN 3-528-05570–7Google Scholar
  4. Meadows DL (1972) Limits to growth: a report for the club of Rome’s project on the predicament of mankind, Universe Books, New York, ISBN 0-87663-222–3Google Scholar
  5. Pollmann O (2006) Simulation of anthropogenic processes of Urban metabolism; biennial conference and exhibition “WasteCon 2006”; The Institute of Waste Management of South Africa (IWMSA), Cape Town, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  6. Pollmann O (2007) Optimization anthropogenic material streams for the example of paper. Dissertation, FB 13, TU Darmstadt, Institutional Series, WAR 189Google Scholar
  7. Pollmann O (2009) Using evolutionary algorithms to optimize anthropogenic material streams. Int J Appl Art Intell, 23(9):883-893, Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1087-6545 (Online), ISSN 0883-9514 (Print), doi:10.1080/08839510903283339Google Scholar
  8. Sierpinski W (2000) General topology. Dover Publications, ISBN 978–0486411484Google Scholar
  9. WWF ZSL Global Footprint Network (2010) Living planet report, ArthurSteenHorneAdamson, ISBN 978-2-940443-08–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olaf Pollmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nelli Pollmann
    • 2
  • Szilárd Podruzsik
    • 3
  • Leon van Rensburg
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and DevelopmentNorth-West University, Potchefstroom Campus (PUK)PotchefstroomSouth Africa
  2. 2.SCENSO—Scientific Environmental SolutionsBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural DevelopmentCorvinus University of BudapestBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations