• Toma ShishkovEmail author
  • Nikola Kolev
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)


Ecological conditions and in particular soil forming factors responsible for the development of smolnitsa are described in this chapter. The genetic approach toward the dynamics of evolution of the type of smolnitsa is based on the conception of genetic horizons and explanation of soil properties. In relation with different soil forming factors like topography, parent materials, climate, vegetation, time, and human influence, the contemporary profiles status of the smolnitsa soil type is presented and the best use of the land is indicated. Morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical soil characteristics are results of the soil development stages and depend on the intensity and duration of weathering and soil forming processes. Products of these processes are the free (non-silicate) forms of elements released through the destruction of the primary mineral lattices. Their content along depth of the soil profile illustrates the extent to which the processes have occurred during soil development. Sound scientific information and data from the large soil surveys carried out over the country’s territory provides the sequence of genetic horizons, soil texture, structure, main physical and chemical properties, and national classification, FAO-UNESCO-ISRIC (1990), WRB (2006) and Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2010).


Bulgaria Soil Smolnitsa Type Classification Genetic horizon Morphology Texture Revised Legend FAO-UNESCO WRB Soil Taxonomy Physical properties Chemical properties Humus Carbonates Iron Land use 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Nikola PoushkarovSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Agricultural AcademySofiaBulgaria

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