“Aboriginal Education” in Teacher Education: Beyond Cultural Inclusions
Since the 1970s, there have been efforts to include education for and about Indigenous people into the Canadian education system. This curriculum has primarily consisted of Indigenous history and culture. However, critical Indigenous scholars and their allies have critiqued the approach of cultural inclusion and maintain that Indigenous education must also interrogate power structures imbedded in racism and colonialism. As “Aboriginal Education” is being increasingly implemented within teacher education programs, now is an important time to examine what is taken up under this heading. This chapter provides a critical discourse analysis of “Aboriginal Education” in two teacher education courses at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. The curriculum is analyzed for the way it interacts with the dominant discourse of cultural inclusion and the alternative discourses it offers. This chapter ends with some suggestions for anti-racist and anti-colonial pedagogies within “Aboriginal Education”.
- Absolon (Minogiizhigokwe), K. E. (2011). Kaandossiwin: How we come to know. Black Point: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
- Applebaum, B. (2010). Being white, being good: White complicity, white moral responsibility, and social justice pedagogy. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
- Boler, M., & Zembylas, M. (2003). Discomforting truths: The emotional terrain of understanding difference. In P. Trifonas (Ed.), Pedagogies of difference: Rethinking education for social change (pp. 107–130). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Cannon, M. J. (2012). Changing the subject in teacher education: Centering Indigenous, diasporic, and settler colonial relations. Cultural and Pedagogical Inquiry, 4(2), 21–37.Google Scholar
- Cannon, M. J., & Sunseri, L. (Eds.). (2011). Racism, colonialism, and indigeneity in Canada: A reader. Don Mills: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dei, G. J. S. (1996). Anti-racism education: Theory and practice. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
- Dei, G. J. S. (2003). Communicating across the tracks: Challenges for anti-racist educators in Ontario today. Orbit, 33(3), 2–5.Google Scholar
- Dei, G. J. S. (2006). Introduction: Mapping the terrain – towards a new politics of resistance. In G. Dei & A. Kempf (Eds.), Anti-colonialism and education: The politics of resistance (pp. 1–23). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
- Dei, G. J. S., James, I. M., James-Wilson, S., Karumanchery, L., & Zine, J. (2000). Removing the margins: The challenges and possibilities of inclusive schooling. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.Google Scholar
- Dion, S. D. (2009). Braiding histories: Learning from aboriginal peoples’ experiences and perspectives: Including the braiding histories stories co-written with Michael R. Dion. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- Faries, E. (2009). Closing the gap for aboriginal students. In 2009 Ontario Education Research symposium. www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/research/eFaries.pdf. Retrieved 15 Mar 2012.
- Frankenberg, R. (1993). White woman, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Friedel, T. L. (2010). Finding a place for race at the policy table: Broadening the Aboriginal education policy discourse in Canada. In Aboriginal policy research initiative: Policy research paper series. Ottawa: The Institute On Governance, in partnership with the Office of the Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians.Google Scholar
- Henry, F., Tator, C., Mattis, W., & Rees, T. (1998). The colour of democracy; Racism in Canadian society (2nd ed.). Toronto: Thompson Nelson Canada.Google Scholar
- Kirkness, V. J. (1999). Aboriginal education in Canada: A retrospective and prospective. Journal of American Indian Education, Special Issue 2, 39(1), 14–30.Google Scholar
- Kumashiro, K. (2002). Troubling education: Queer activism and anti-oppressive pedagogy. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
- Kumashiro, K. (2009). Against common sense: Teaching and learning toward social justice (Revised Edition). New York: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
- Lawrence, B., & Dua, E. (2005). Decolonizing antiracism. Social Justice, 32(4), 120–143.Google Scholar
- Mawani, R. (2002). In between and out of place: Mixed-race identity, liquor, and the law in British Columbia, 1850–1913. In S. Razack (Ed.), Race, space and the law: Unmapping a white settler society (pp. 47–69). Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
- National Indian Brotherhood/Assembly of First Nations. (1973). Indian control of Indian education: Statement of the Indian philosophy of education. Ottawa: Author. http://www.aboriginalinstitute.com/IndianControlofIndianEducation.pdf. Retrieved 18 Feb 2012.
- Nieto, S. (2002). Affirmation, solidarity and critique: Moving beyond tolerance in education. In E. Lee, D. Menkart, & M. Okazawa-Rey (Eds.), Beyond heroes and holidays (pp. 18–29). Washington: Teaching for Change.Google Scholar
- Ontario Ministry of Education (OME). (2009). Equity and inclusive education in Ontario schools: Guidelines for policy development and implementation. Toronto: Author. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/equity.html. Retrieved 10 Apr 2012.
- Ontario Ministry of Education (OME), Aboriginal Education Office. (2007). Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit education policy framework. Toronto: Author. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/aboriginal/fnmiFramework.pdf. Retrieved 15 Jan 2012.
- Rushowy, K. (2012). Ontario to increase teacher training to two years. Toronto Star. Accessed at http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/politics/article/1149954--ontario-to-boost-teacher-training-to-two-years
- Schick, C., & St. Denis, V. (2003). What makes anti-racist pedagogy in teacher education difficult? The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, XLIX(1), 55–69.Google Scholar
- Smith, A. (2010, Summer/Autumn). Indigeneity, settler colonialism, white supremacy. Global Dialogue, 12(2), 1–16.Google Scholar
- St. Denis, V. (2011a, Reprinted). Rethinking culture theory in aboriginal education. In M. J. Cannon & L. Sunseri (Eds.), Racism, colonialism, and indigeneity in Canada: A reader (pp. 177–187). Don Mills: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- TDSB. (2000). Equity foundation statement and commitments to equity policy implementation. Toronto: Author. http://www.tdsb.on.ca/_site/ViewItem.asp?siteid=15&menuid=682&pageid=546. Retrieved 10 Apr 2012.
- Thobani, S. (2007). Exalted subjects: Studies in the making of race and nation in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Urietta, L., Jr., & Riedel, M. (2006). Avoidance, anger, and convenient amnesia: White supremacy, self-reflection in social studies teacher education. In W. Ross & V. Ooka Pang (Eds.), Race, ethnicity, and education (pp. 279–300). Westport: Praeger Publishing.Google Scholar
- van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Critical discourse analysis. In D. Tannen, D. Schiffrin & H. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 352–371). Oxford: Blackwell. http://www.discourses.org/download/articles/. Accessed 3 Mar 2012.
- van Dijk, T. A. (2009). Critical discourse studies: A sociocognitive approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (2nd ed., pp. 62–86). London: Sage.Google Scholar