Advertisement

Parenting in Two Cultural Worlds in the Presence of One Dominant Worldview: The American Indian Experience

  • Betsy DavisEmail author
  • Renda Dionne
  • Michelle Fortin
Chapter
Part of the Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science book series (SACH, volume 7)

Abstract

According to recent estimates (U.S. Census 2010), 5.2 million American Indians, over 500,000 families, reside in the United States today. The majority of these families reside off-reservation or Indian trust land, live and raise children in mainstream society and, for many, find themselves physically removed from the support of their tribal community. In this chapter, our goal is to spur conversation regarding the mainstream social context American Indian parents and children must deal with today and how this society, simply by reflecting its own unquestioned history, may bring forth for many a disparate level of difficulty. We will discuss the clash in worldviews occurring at the initial cultural intersection that sought to break up communities and subjugate traditional protective parenting practices within families. We will present data-driven models of the impact of a colonized history on current parent and child functioning and demonstrate how society today continues to exacerbate the impact of this moral injury on many families. Within this discussion we will expand the current view of enculturation as a protective factor, highlighting how past and continued colonization for some parents can impact the resiliency gained from one’s ancestral story. Finally, we will present our conceptualization of the balance needed between ancestral story and mainstream influences in order for parents to pass cultural resiliency through to the next generation.

Keywords

Tribal Community Mainstream Society Residential School Creation Story Moral Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to acknowledge the following for grant support for this chapter:

NIH/NIAID Grant # DA017626

NIDA Grant # DA015817

References

  1. Axelson, J. A. (1985). Counseling and development in a multicultural society. Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Barter, E. R., & Barter, J. T. (1974). Urban Indians and mental health problems. Psychiatric Annals, 4(11), 37–43.Google Scholar
  3. Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Anchor.Google Scholar
  4. Bird-David, N. (1991). Animism revisited: Personhood, environment, and relational epistemology. Current Anthropology, 40, 67–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brave Heart, M. Y. H. (1999). Oyate Ptayela: Rebuilding the Lakota Nation through addressing historical trauma among Lakota parents. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 2(1–2), 109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brave Heart, M. Y. H. (2000). Wakiksuyapi: Carrying the historical trauma of the Lakota. Tulane Studies in Social Welfare, 21–22, 245–266.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, D. A. (1991). Bury my heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian history of the American West. New York: Henry Holt and Co.Google Scholar
  8. Clarke, S. A. (2002). Social and emotional distress among American Indian and Alaska Native students: Research findings. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. (ERIC No. ED459988)Google Scholar
  9. Cross, T. L. (1986). Positive Indian parenting: Honoring our children by honoring our traditions. Portland: National Indian Child Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, B., Dionne, R., Madrigal, L., & Fortin, M. (2010). Findings from two culturally-based family prevention studies with indigenous populations. Invited presentation at the National Institute of Drug Abuse, State of Science and Grant Development Workshop, Building Bridges: Advancing American Indian/Alaska Native Substance Abuse Research.Google Scholar
  11. Denham, A. R. (2008). Rethinking historical trauma: Narratives of resilience. Transcultural Psychiatry, 45(3), 391–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dionne, R., Davis, B., Sheeber, L., & Madrigal, L. (2009). Initial evaluation of a cultural approach to implementation of evidence-based parenting intervention in American Indian communities. Journal of Community Psychology, 37(7), 911–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DuBray, W. H. (1985). American Indian values: Critical factor in casework. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 66(1), 30–37.Google Scholar
  14. Duran, B., Duran, E., & Brave Heart, M. Y. (1998). American Indian and/or Alaska Natives and the trauma of history. In R. Thornton (Ed.), Studying Native America: Problems and prospects (pp. 60–76). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  15. Evans-Campbell, T. (2008). Historical trauma in American Indian/Native American communities: A multi-level framework for exploring impacts on individuals, families, and communities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(2), 316–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Goheen, M. (2002, July). The European worldview and education. Paper presented at the Education Conference in Tivadarfalvai. http://www.biblicaltheology.ca/blue_files/European%20Worldview%20and%20Education.pdf
  17. Gone, J. P., & Alcantara, C. (2010). The ethnographically contextualized case study method: Exploring ambitious achievement in an American Indian community. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2), 159–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenwood, M. (2004). Voices from the field – An aboriginal view on child care. In R. E. Tremblay, R. G. Barr, & R. DeV. Peters (Eds.) Encyclopedia on early childhood development (pp. 1–3). Montreal: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. Available at: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/GreenwoodANGps.pdf. Accessed July 12, 2012
  19. Hart, M. A. (2010). Indigenous worldviews, knowledge, and research: The development of an indigenous research paradigm. Journal of Indigenous Voices in Social Work, 1(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  20. Hull, G. H., Jr. (1982). Child welfare services to Native Americans. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 63, 340–347.Google Scholar
  21. Kleinman, A. (1998). Experience and its moral modes: Culture, human conditions, and disorder. Presentation at the Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  22. Manson, S. M., Beals, J., O’Nell, T. D., Piasecki, J., Bechtol, W., Keane, E. M., & Jones, M. C. (1996). Wounded spirits, ailing hearts: PTSD and related disorders among American Natives. In A. J. Marsella, M. J. Friedman, E. Gerrity, & R. M. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 255–283). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morrisette, P. J. (1994). The Holocaust of First Nation people: Residual effects on parenting and treatment implications. Contemporary Family Therapy, 16, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patterson, C. (2002). Eternal Treblinka: Our treatment of animals and the Holocaust. New York: Lantern Books.Google Scholar
  25. Red Horse, J., Feit, M., Lewis, R., & Decker, J. T. (1978). Family behaviors of urban American Indians. Social Casework, 2, 67–72.Google Scholar
  26. Schlitz, M., Vieten, C., & Miller, E. (2010). Worldview transformation and the development of social consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17(7–8), 18–36.Google Scholar
  27. Sizemore, P. S., & Langenbrunner, M. R. (1996). Native Americans: Fostering a goodness-of-fit between home and school. Family Science Review, 9(2), 93–105.Google Scholar
  28. Sotero, M. M. (2006). A conceptual model of historical trauma: Implications for public health practice and research. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 1(1), 93–108.Google Scholar
  29. U.S. Census. (2011, November). Facts for features: American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month. Retrieved July 10, 2012, from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb11-ff22.html
  30. Walters, K., Simoni, J., & Evans-Campbell, T. (2002). Substance use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Incorporating culture in an “Indigenist” stress-coping paradigm. Public Health Reports, 117(1), 104–117.Google Scholar
  31. Weaver, H. M., & White, B. J. (1995). The Native American family circle: Roots of resiliency. Journal of Social Work, 2(1), 67–79.Google Scholar
  32. Whitbeck, L., Adams, G., Hoyt, D., & Chen, X. (2004). Conceptualizing and measuring historical trauma among American Indian people. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3/4), 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wise, F., & Miller, H. B. (1983). The mental health of American Indian children. In G. J. Powell, J. Yamamato, A. Romeo, & A. Morales (Eds.), The psychosocial development of minority group children (pp. 344–361). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  34. Witt, S. (1980). Pressure points in growing up Indian. Perspectives: The Civil Rights Quarterly, 12(1), 24–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oregon Research InstituteEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Indian Child and Family ServicesTemeculaUSA
  3. 3.Watari Youth, Community and Family ServicesVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations