Advertisement

Parenting: The Turkish Context

  • Hilal SenEmail author
  • H. Melis Yavuz-Muren
  • Bilge Yagmurlu
Chapter
Part of the Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science book series (SACH, volume 7)

Abstract

This chapter aims to give the reader an analysis of parenting and family in Turkish culture. It first summarizes the main theoretical accounts that are helpful in understanding cultural differences in parenting. It then presents an overview of Turkish society, especially its women. The authors try to give a general idea about common parenting cognitions (values and goals) and behaviors in the Turkish context, but also emphasize the significant within-culture variation that appears as a function of parental education and rural vs. urban settlement. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future directions for research.

Keywords

Parenting Behavior Positive Parenting Total Fertility Rate Parental Cognition Child Rear 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1992). The determinants of parenting behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21(4), 407–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agirdir, B. (2010). Polarization in society and politics. Retrieved June 26, 2012, from Konda Research and Consultancy Website: http://www.konda.com.tr/tr/raporlar.php
  3. Akcinar, B., & Baydar, N. (2011, July). Parental control and its behavioral consequences for preschool children in Turkey and in USA. Paper presented at the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP) regional conference, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  4. Aksan, N., Yagmurlu, B., & Corapci, F. (2008). Socio-emotional development and mother-child relationship in early childhood (Grant No: 109K016). Istanbul: Koc University.Google Scholar
  5. Ataca, B., Kagitcibasi, C., & Diri, A. (2005). Turkish family and the value of children: Trends over time. In G. Trommsdorff & B. Nauck (Eds.), The value of children in cross-cultural perspective. Case studies from eight societies (pp. 91–119). Lengerich: Pabst Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Baumrind, D. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth and Society, 9(3), 239–275.Google Scholar
  7. Baydar, N., Kuntay, A., Goksen, F., Yagmurlu, B., & Cemalcilar, Z. (2008). The study of early childhood developmental ecologies in Turkey-Wave- 1 Results. Retrieved May 25, 2009, from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm
  8. Baydar, N., Akcinar, B., & Imer, N. (2012). Environment, socio-economic context, and parenting. In M. Sayil & B. Yagmurlu (Eds.), Parenting: Theory and research (pp. 81–128). Istanbul: Koc University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C., Suwalsky, J. T. D., & Haynes, O. M. (2003). The Hollingshead four factor index of social status and the socioeconomic index of occupations. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting and child development (pp. 29–82). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 6, pp. 187–251). Greenwich: JAI.Google Scholar
  12. Bualato, R. A. (1979a). On the nature of the transition in the value of children. Papers of the East-West Population Institute (No. 60-A). Honolulu: EastWest Center.Google Scholar
  13. Carkoglu, A., & Kalaycioglu, E. (2009). Religiosity in Turkey: A cross-national investigation. Istanbul: Sabanci University, Istanbul Policy Center.Google Scholar
  14. Civelek, Z. (2012). The effects of maternal behaviors on children’s cognitive development. Unpublished master’s thesis. Graduate School of Social Sciences & Humanities (GSSS), Koc University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  15. Corapci, F., Aksan, N., & Yagmurlu, B. (2012). Socialization of Turkish children’s emotions: Do different emotions elicit different responses? Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cowan, P. A., Powell, D., & Cowan, C. P. (1998). Parenting interventions: A family systems perspective. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 3–72). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Danso, H., Hunsberger, B., & Pratt, M. (1997). The role of parental religious fundamentalism and right-wing authoritarianism in child-rearing goals and practices. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 496–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 294–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dawson, J. L. M. (1967). Traditional versus Western attitudes in West Africa: The construction, validation, and application of a measuring device. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 81–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dix, T., Ruble, D. N., Grusec, J. E., & Nixon, S. (1986). Social cognition in parents: Inferential and affective reactions to children of three age levels. Child Development, 57, 879–894.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2003). Off with Hollingshead: Socioeconomic resources, parenting, and child development. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 83–106). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Duriez, B., Soenens, B., Neyrinck, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2009). Is religiosity related to better parenting?: Disentangling religiosity from religious cognitive style. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 1287–1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fawcett, J. T. (1983). Perceptions of the value of children: Satisfactions and costs. In R. Bulatao, R. D. Lee, P. E. Hollerbach, & J. Bongaarts (Eds.), Determinants of fertility in developing countries (Vol. 1, pp. 347–369). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fowler, S. (2011, May 4). Women still an untapped labor force in Turkey. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/05/world/middleeast/05iht-M05-WORK-WOMEN.html
  26. Goodnow, J. J. (1988). Parents’ ideas, actions, and feelings: Models and methods from developmental and social psychology. Child Development, 59, 286–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodnow, J. J. (1997). Parenting and the transmission and internalization of values: From social-cultural perspectives to within-family analyses. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values (pp. 333–361). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Göregenli, M. (1995). Individualism-collectivism orientations in the Turkish culture: A preliminary study. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 10(35), 1–14.Google Scholar
  29. Göregenli, M. (1997). Individualistic-collectivistic tendencies in a Turkish sample. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28(6), 787–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Günes-Ayata, A. (1996). Solidarity in urban Turkish family. In G. Rasuly-Paleczek (Ed.), Turkish families in transition (pp. 98–113). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  31. Güroglu, I. (2010). Can the support networks help mothers with high levels of depressive symptoms? Unpublished master’s thesis. Graduate School of Social Sciences & Humanities (GSSS), Koc University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  32. Harwood, R. L. (1992). The influence of culturally derived values on Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers’ perceptions of attachment behavior. Child Development, 63, 822–839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hastings, P. D., & Grusec, J. E. (1998). Parenting goals as organizers of responses to parent-child disagreement. Developmental Psychology, 34, 465–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Herkovits, M. J. (1948). Man and his works: The science of cultural anthropology. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  35. Hoffman, L. W. (1987). The value of children to parents and child rearing patterns. In C. Kagitcibasi (Ed.), Growth and progress in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 159–170). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  36. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  38. Imamoglu, E. O. (1987). An interdependence model of human development. In C. Kagitcibasi (Ed.), Growth and progress in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 138–145). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  39. Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65(1), 19–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2009). Muslim integration into Western cultures: Between origins and destinations. Retrieved June, 16, 2012, from Harvard Kennedy School, Social Sciences Research Network website: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1354185
  41. Inkeles, A., & Smith, D. H. (1974). Becoming modern: Individual changes in six developing countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kagitcibasi, C. (1970). Social norms and authoritarianism: A Turkish-American comparison. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(3), 444–451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kagitcibasi, C. (1982a). Old-age security value of children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13(1), 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kagitcibasi, C. (1982b). Sex roles, value of children and fertility in Turkey. In C. Kagitcibasi (Ed.), Sex roles, family, and community in Turkey (pp. 151–180). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kagitcibasi, C. (1987). Alienation of the outsider: The plight of migrants. International Migration, 25, 195–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kagitcibasi, C. (1989). Child rearing in Turkey and intervention research. Psychology and Developing Societies, 1(1), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kagitcibasi, C. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 403–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kagitcibasi, C. (2007). Family, self, and human development across cultures: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Kagitcibasi, C. (2010). Self, family, and human development: Cultural psychology. İstanbul: Koc University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kagitcibasi, C., & Ataca, B. (2005). Value of children and family change: A three-decade portrait of from Turkey. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(3), 317–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kagitcibasi, C., Sunar, D., & Bekman, S. (2001). Long-term effects of early intervention: Turkish low-income mothers and children. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 333–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiray, M. (1976). The new role of mothers: Changing intra-familial relationships in a small town in Turkey. In J. G. Peristiany (Ed.), Mediterranean family structures (pp. 261–271). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Kongar, E. (1976). A survey of familial change in two Turkish gecekondu areas. In J. G. Peristiany (Ed.), Mediterranean family structures (pp. 205–218). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Korte, C. (1984). The helpfulness of villagers. In E. Staub, D. Bar-Tal, J. Karylowski, & J. Reykowski (Eds.), Mediterranean family structures (pp. 205–218). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kotchick, B. A., Dorsey, S., & Heller, L. (2005). Predictors of parenting among African American single mothers: Personal and contextual factors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(2), 448–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture, Part III: Papers of the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kuczynski, L. (1984). Socialization goals and mother-child interaction: Strategies for long-term and short-term compliance. Developmental Psychology, 20(6), 1061–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Küntay, A., & Ahtam, B. (2004). Effect of maternal education on Turkish mothers’ styles of reminiscing with their children. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 19, 19–31.Google Scholar
  60. Kürüm, O. (2011). The role of affective tone in discipline transactions of mothers and their preschoolers: Implications for self-regulation. Unpublished master’s thesis, Graduate School of Social Sciences & Humanities (GSSS), Koc University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  61. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lloyd, A., & Fallers, M. C. (1976). Sex roles in Edremit. In J. G. Peristiany (Ed.), Mediterranean family structures (pp. 243–260). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Mistry, R. S., Biesanz, J., Chien, N., Howes, C., & Benner, A. D. (2008). SES, parental investments, and the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of low‐income children from immigrant and native households. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mulsow, M., Pursley, M., Caldera, Y. M., Reifman, A., & Huston, A. C. (2002). Multilevel factors influencing maternal stress during the first three years. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 415–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nacak, M., Yagmurlu, B., Dürgel, E., & van de Vijver, F. (2011). Parenting in metropole and Anatolia samples: The role of residence and education in beliefs and behaviors. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 26(67), 85–100.Google Scholar
  66. Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Tach, L. M., Sampson, R. J., Taylor, A., Matthews, C. L., et al. (2009). The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on British children growing up in deprivation: A developmental analysis. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 942–957.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Özgür, E. M. (2004). Spatial distribution of total fertility rate in Turkey. The Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  68. Rasuly-Paleczek, G. (1996). Some remarks on the study of household composition and intra-family relations in rural and urban Turkey. In G. Rasuly-Paleczek (Ed.), Turkish families in transition (pp. 1–44). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  69. Sayil, M., & Yagmurlu, B. (2012). Parenting: Theory and research. Istanbul: Koc University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Schwartz, S. H. (1999). Cultural value differences: Some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Segall, M. H., Dasen, P. R., Berry, J. W., & Poortinga, Y. H. (1990). Human behavior in global perspective. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  72. Slaughter-Defoe, D. T. (1995). Revisiting the concept of socialization. Caregiving and teaching in the 90s: A personal perspective. American Psychologist, 50(4), 276–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sun, L. K. (1991). Contemporary Chinese culture: Structure and emotionality. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 26, 1–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sunar, D., & Fisek, G. (2005). Contemporary Turkish families. In U. Gielen & J. Roopnarine (Eds.), Families in global perspectives (pp. 169–183). Boston: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson.Google Scholar
  75. Super, C. M., & Harkness, S. (1986). The developmental niche: A conceptualization of the interface of child and culture. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9, 545–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Taylor, R. D., & Oskay, G. (1995). Identity formation in Turkish and American late adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(1), 8–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Triandis, H. C. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  79. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  80. Turkish Republic Ministry of Development. (2009). The employment of women in Turkey: Tendencies, causes, and political context (No: 48508-TR). Ankara.Google Scholar
  81. Turkish Republic Ministry of Development. (2010). The changes in the employment of women in Turkey (No: 2). Ankara.Google Scholar
  82. Turkish Republic Prime Ministry Family Research Institution. (2012). The situation of women in Turkey. Ankara.Google Scholar
  83. Turkish Statistical Institute. (2010). Results of business statistics. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr
  84. Turkish Statistical Institute. (2011). Results of education. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr
  85. UNICEF. (1991). The situation analysis of mothers and children in Turkey. Ankara: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  86. Vandell, D. L. (2000). Parents, peer groups, and other socializing influences. Developmental Psychology, 36(6), 699–710.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Volkan, V. D., & Cevik, A. (1989). Turkish fathers and their families. In S. H. Cath, A. Gurwitt, & L. Gunsberg (Eds.), Fathers and their families (pp. 347–364). Hillsdale: The Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Yagmurlu, B., & Altan, O. (2010). Maternal socialization and child temperament as predictors of emotion regulation in Turkish preschoolers. Infant and Child Development, 19, 275–296.Google Scholar
  89. Yagmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). Acculturation attitudes and parenting in Turkish-Australian mothers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 361–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yagmurlu, B., Citlak, B., Dost, A., & Leyendecker, B. (2009). Child socialization goals of Turkish mothers: An investigation of education related within-culture variation. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 24, 1–15.Google Scholar
  91. Yagmurlu, B., Cheah, C., Sen, H., & Yavuz, H. M. (2012). Turkish mothers’ cognitions for strictness and warmth in parenting. Unpublished work.Google Scholar
  92. Yavuz, M. H. (2011). Internalizing behaviors in Turkish preschoolers: Role of temperament, maternal positive parenting and stress. Unpublished master’s thesis, Graduate School of Social Sciences & Humanities (GSSS), Koc University, Istanbul.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilal Sen
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Melis Yavuz-Muren
    • 1
  • Bilge Yagmurlu
    • 1
  1. 1.Developmental PsychologyKOC UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations