Future Directions for Climate Research in Asia and the Pacific
- 938 Downloads
There are clear trends of increasing temperature in the Asia-Pacific region. There are observed trends in extreme climate events and evidence of changes in large-scale climate systems including the monsoon and the associated Hadley circulation. Modeling the climate of the region provides opportunities for improved understanding and prediction, but there remain challenges especially for mountainous terrain and small islands. Current projections for future climate indicate that existing stresses are likely to be exacerbated.
Urbanization is expected to continue and better understanding of the interactions between climate and urban areas is essential. Further work is needed to improve our understanding of adaptation and mitigation both in urban areas and in small communities. Significant challenges exacerbated by climate variability and change need to be overcome so that future needs for rice and wheat can be met. Management strategies need to be implemented globally so that fisheries will be able to provide necessary food for the region. Local management strategies are also needed to ensure water security.
Regional and international cooperation is providing initial support for integrated assessments that can investigate pathways towards low carbon development (LCD) across the region. Natural ecosystem services support substantial components of economies across the region and new strategies are being developed to enhance the resilience of natural ecosystems impacted by climate change. Natural ecosystems in Asia and the Pacific can contribute significantly to the mitigation of climate change.
Communities, particularly poor and remote communities, are vulnerable to climate change and there is a need for capacity building in research, policy development and implementation to reduce these vulnerabilities. International cooperation exists in the development of mechanisms to promote systematic observations of geophysical variables. Further cooperation is needed to ensure that consistent high-quality socio-economic data are collected, archived and accessible. Continuous monitoring of the geophysical environment and associated socio-economic variables, and developing and analyzing indicators of climate interactions with natural ecosystems and human societies is needed to fully interpret and respond to the complex socio-economic interactions with the Earth’s climate.
KeywordsAsia-Pacific Climate research Security Society Sustainability Urbanization
- Campbell, J. R. (2006). Rational disaster reduction in Pacific Island communities (GNS science report, Vol. 2006/038). Wellington: Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited.Google Scholar
- Chapin, F. S., III, Carpenter, S. R., Kofinas, G. P., Folke, C., Abel, N., Clark, W. C., Swanson, F. J., et al. (2009). Ecosystem stewardship: Sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(4), 231–249.Google Scholar
- Garnaut, R. (2008). The Garnaut climate change review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Kyoto University, and Mizuho Information & Research Institute. (2009). Low carbon society vision 2050 India. Google Scholar
- Kishi, M. J., Kaeriyama, M., Ueno, H., & Kamezawa, Y. (2010). The effect of climate change on the growth of Japanese chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) using a bioenergetics model coupled with a three-dimensional lower tropic ecosystem model (NEMURO). Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 1257–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar, R., Areendran, G., & Rao, P. (2009). Witnessing change: Glaciers in the Indian Himalayas. Pilani: WWF-India and Birla Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Kumar, K. K., Patwardhan, S. K., Kulkarni, A., Kamala, K., Koteswara Rao, K., & Jones, R. (2011). Simulated projections for summer monsoon climate over India by high-resolution regional climate model (PRECIS). Current Science, 101, 312–326.Google Scholar
- Kwon, W. T. (2007). Development of indices and indicators for monitoring trends in climate extremes and its application to climate change projection (Final research report for APN project: ARCP2007-20NSG). Retrieved from APN E-Lib http://www.apn-gcr.org/resources/items/show/1537
- Munang, R., Thiaw, I., Thompson, J., Ganz, D., Girvetz, E., & Rivington, M. (2011). Sustaining forests: Investing in our common future (UNEP policy series, Vol. 5). Nairobo: UNEP.Google Scholar
- Nakajima, T., Yoon, S.-C., Ramanathan, V., Shi, G.-Y., Takemura, T., Higurashi, A., Schutgens, N., et al. (2007). Overview of the atmospheric brown cloud East Asian regional experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in East Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112(D24), D24S91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pulhin, J. M. (2009). Capacity development on integration of science and local knowledge for climate change impacts and vulnerability assessments (APN project CIA2009-02-Pulhin). Available from APN E-Lib http://www.apn-gcr.org/resources/items/show/1699
- Revadekar, J. V., Hameed, S., Collins, D., Manton, M., Sheikh, M., Borgaonkar, H. P., & Shrestha, M. L. (2012). Impact of altitude and latitude on changes in temperature extremes over South Asia during 1971–2000. International Journal of Climatology, 33(1), 199–209. doi: 10.1002/joc.3418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Revenga, C., Brunner, J., Henninger, N., Payne, R., & Kassem, K. (2000). Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: freshwater systems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
- Satterthwaite, D., Huq, S., Pelling, M., Reid, H., & Lankao, P. R. (2007). Adapting to climate change in urban areas, the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations (Human settlements discussion paper series, Theme: Climate change and cities, Vol. 1). London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
- Sheikh, M. M. (2008). Development and application of climate extreme indices and indicators for monitoring trends in climate extremes and their socio-economic impacts in South Asian Countries. APN project ARCP2008-10CMY-Sheikh. Available from APN E-Lib http://www.apn-gcr.org/resources/items/show/1550
- Sivakumar, M. V. K., & Motha, R. P. (Eds.). (2007). Managing weather and climate risks in agriculture. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- SPREP. (2011). Pacific islands framework for action on climate change 2006–2015 2nd edition, Reprinted by Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), Samoa. Available from http://www.sprep.org
- Vasconcellos, E. A. (2001). Urban transportation, environment and equity: The case for developing countries. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Walsh, M. P. (2003). Vehicle emission and health in developing countries. In G. McGranahan & F. Murry (Eds.), Air pollution and health in rapidly developing countries (pp. 146–175). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Wan, G., & Sebastian, I. (2011) Poverty in Asia and the Pacific: An update (Asian development bank economics working paper No. 267). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1919973
- Whitehall, K., Mattmann, C., Waliser, D., Kim, J., Goodale, C., Hart, A., & Hewitson, B. (2012). Building model evaluation and decision support capacity for CORDEX. WMO Bulletin, 61(2), 29–34.Google Scholar
- Wild, M., Trüssel, B., Ohmura, A., Long, C. N., König-Langlo, G., Dutton, E. G., & Tsvetkov, A. (2009). Global dimming and brightening: An update beyond 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114(D10), doi: 10.1029/2008JD011382.