Climate and Sustainability

  • Rodel LascoEmail author
  • Yasuko Kameyama
  • Kejun Jiang
  • Linda Peñalba
  • Juan Pulhin
  • P. R. Shukla
  • Suneetha M. Subramanian
Part of the Advances in Global Change Research book series (AGLO, volume 56)


Projected change in climate in the coming decades adds a layer of complexity in the search for sustainability. Warming temperatures, rising sea levels, changing precipitation patterns and their impacts on natural and human systems could threaten the attainment of development goals. Many countries in Asia and the Pacific are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and there is growing recognition that climate change adaptation must be tackled as an integral part of the development process, for example in mainstreaming climate change adaptation into national plans and programmes. The aim of Chap. 6 is to explore linkages between sustainable development and efforts to address climate change in Asia and the Pacific, particularly focussing in two areas of low carbon development (LCD) pathways for the region, and the importance of natural ecosystems in sustaining the delivery of ecosystem services that are essential for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The challenges posed by climate change will be felt in the coming decades in Asia and the Pacific. In parallel, nations in the region will continue to aspire for sustainable development. Policy makers and development workers must find ways to ensure that both these concerns are addressed synergistically while avoiding negative outcomes. One way to mitigate climate change while pursuing sustainable development is through LCD, which will require negotiations across many stakeholders of governments, non-government agencies, industry and broader communities. In Asia and the Pacific natural ecosystems will continue to play a critical role in addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. Nations in the region will have to find innovative ways to manage and rehabilitate natural ecosystems for a multiplicity of functions and services. This will involve greater collaboration and communication between scientists and policy makers as well as between natural and social scientists. In many developing countries, there is still very limited empirical information and research needs to be ramped up. North-South and South-South partnerships could help fill the gap.


Climate and ecosystems Integrated assessment models Low carbon development Climate and sustainability 


  1. Adger, W. N. (2003). Building resilience to promote sustainability: An agenda for coping with globalization and promoting justice. IHDP Update, 2, 1–3.Google Scholar
  2. Adhikari, B., Williams, F., & Lovett, J. C. (2007). Local benefits from community forests in the middle hills of Nepal. Forest Policy and Economics, 9, 464–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AIT/UNEP. (2010). Adaptation knowledge platform coastal ecosystem’s role in climate change adaptation synthesis report. Bangkok: AIT/UNEP Regional Resource Center for Asia & the Pacific.Google Scholar
  4. Alcamo, J., Shaw, R., & Hordijk, L. (Eds.). (1990). The RAINS model of acidification: Science and strategies in Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  5. Arico, S., & Valderrama, G. C. (2010). Traditional knowledge: From environmental management to territorial development. In S. M. Subramanian & B. Pisupati (Eds.), Traditional knowledge in policy and practice: Approaches to development and human wellbeing (pp. 208–225). Tokyo: UNU Press.Google Scholar
  6. Asian Development Bank. (2008). Strategy 2020: Working for an Asia and Pacific free of poverty. Manila: ADB.Google Scholar
  7. Badenoch, N. (2002). Transboundary environmental governance principles and practice in mainland Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  8. Baumgartner, R. J. (2011). Critical perspectives of sustainable development research and practice. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19, 783–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bélair, C., Ichikawa, K., Wong, B. Y. L., & Mulongoy, K. J. (Eds.). (2010). Sustainable use of biological diversity in socio-ecological production landscapes. Background to the ‘Satoyama Initiative for the benefit of biodiversity and human well-being’. Montreal/Canada/Tokyo: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations University-Institutes of Advanced Studies, and Ministry of Environment Japan.Google Scholar
  10. Berkes, F. (2008). Sacred ecology (2nd ed.). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2000). Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications, 10(5), 1251–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boer, R. (2001). Economic assessment of mitigation options for enhancing and maintaining carbon sink capacity in Indonesia. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 6, 257–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonan, G. B. (2008). Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science, 320, 1444–1449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Braimoh, A. K., Subramanian, S., Elliott, W., & Gasparatos, A. (2010). Climate and human related drivers of biodiversity decline in Southeast Asia. Yokohama: UNU-IAS Policy Report.Google Scholar
  15. Brockhaus, M., Obidzinski, K., Dermawan, A., Laumonier, Y., & Luttrell, C. (2011). An overview of forest and land allocation policies in Indonesia: Is the current framework sufficient to meet the needs of REDD + ? Forest Policy and Economics, 18, 30–37. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2011.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caplow, S., Jagger, P., Lawlor, K., & Sills, E. (2011). Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: Lessons for learning about REDD+. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(2), 152–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter, S. R., Mooney, H. A., Agard, J., Capistrano, D., DeFriese, R. S., Díaz, S., … & Whyte, A. (2009). Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the millennium ecosystem assessment. PNAS, 106(5), 1305–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CBD. (1991). Article 2 of the convention on biological diversity. Available at
  19. Chapin, F. S., III, Carpenter, S. R., Kofinas, G. P., Folke, C., Abel, N., Clark, W. C., … & Swanson, F. J. (2009). Ecosystem stewardship: Sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(4), 231–249.Google Scholar
  20. Chazdon, R. L. (2008). Beyond deforestation: Restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science, 320(5882), 1458–1460. doi: 10.1126/science.1155365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colls, A., Ash, N., & Ikkala, N. (2009). Ecosystem-based adaptation: A natural response to climate change. Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).Google Scholar
  22. Crooks, S., Herr, D., Tamelander, J., Laffoley, D., & Vandever, J. (2011). Mitigating climate change through restoration and management of coastal wetlands and near-shore marine ecosystems: Challenges and opportunities (Environment department paper, Vol. 121). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  23. Cruz, R. V., Harasawa, H., Lal, M., Wu, S., Anokhin, Y., Punsalmaa, B., & Ninh, N. H. (2007). Asia. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 469–506). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Daily, G. C. (Ed.). (1997). Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  25. Daily, G. C., & Matson, P. A. (2008). Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation. PNAS, 105(28), 9455–9456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Danielsen, F., Beukema, H., Burgess, N. D., Parish, F., Bruhl, C. A., Donald, P. F., … & Fitzherbert, E. B. (2009). Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate. Conservation Biology, 23, 348–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Vries, B. J. M., & Petersen, A. C. (2009). Conceptualizing sustainable development: An assessment methodology connecting values, knowledge, worldviews and scenarios. Ecological Economics, 68, 1006–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Denman, K. L., Brasseur, G., Chidthaisong, A., Ciais, P., Cox, P. M., Dickinson, R. E., … & Zhang, X. (2007). Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, & H. L. Miller (Eds.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Devisscher, T. (2010). Ecosystem-based adaptation in Africa. Rationale, pathways and cost estimates. Stockholm Environment Institute, April 2010, p. 92.Google Scholar
  30. Dewi, S., Belcher, B., & Puntodewo, A. (2005). Village economic opportunity, forest dependence, and rural livelihoods in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. World Development, 33, 1419–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Edmonds, J., & Reilly, J. (1985). Global energy: Assessing the future. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. FAO. (2006). Global forest resources assessment 2005 (Forestry paper, Vol. 147). Rome: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  33. FAO. (2010a). Global forest resources assessment 2010 (FAO forestry paper, No. 163). Rome. Retrieved from
  34. FAO. (2010b). Forestry trade flows – FAOSTAT. Available from
  35. Fischlin, A., Midgley, G. F., Price, J. T., Leemans, R., Gopal, B., Turley, C., & Velichko, A. A. (2007). Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 211–272). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fitzherbert, E. B., Struebig, M. J., Morel, A., Danielsen, F., Bruhl, C. A., Donald, P. F., & Phalan, B. (2008). How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 538–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., Holling, C. S., & Walker, B. (2002). Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio, 31, 437–440.Google Scholar
  38. Folke, C., Hahn, T., Olsson, P., & Norberg, J. (2005). Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, 441–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Friedlingstein, P., Houghton, R. A., Marland, G., Hackler, J., Boden, T. A., Conway, T. J., & Le Quéré, C. (2010). Update on CO2 emissions. Nature Geoscience, 3, 811–812. doi: 10.1038/ngeo_1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fu, Y., Chen, J., Guo, H., Chen, A., Cui, J., & Hu, H. (2009). The role of non-timber forest products during agroecosystem shift in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. Forest Policy and Economics, 11, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Futerra Sustainability Communications. (2010). Branding biodiversity: The new nature message. London: Futerra.Google Scholar
  42. Goma, H. C., Rahim, K., Nangendo, G., Riley, J., & Stein, A. (2001). Participatory studies for agroecosystem evaluation. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 87, 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Govan, H. (2009). Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the South Pacific: Meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs. SPREP/WWF/WorldFish-Reefbase/CRISP. 95pp + 5 annexes.Google Scholar
  44. Gunderson, L. H., & Holling, C. S. (Eds.). (2002). Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  45. Halsnaes, K., Markandya, A., & Shukla, P. (2011). Introduction: Sustainable development, energy, and climate change. World Development, 39, 983–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harvey, N. (2006). Global change and integrated coastal management: The Asia-Pacific region. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hindra, B. (2007 August 6–8). Community forestry in Indonesia. Bangkok, Thailand: Paper presented on Asia Pacific Tropical Forest Investment Forum.Google Scholar
  48. Houghton, R. A., & Hackler, J. L. (2003). Sources and sinks of carbon from land-use change in China. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, 1034–1052. doi: 10.1029/2002GB001970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Kyoto University, and Mizuho Information & Research Institute. (2009). Low carbon society vision 2050 India. Google Scholar
  50. Irwin, F., & Ranganathan, J. (2007). Restoring nature’s capital: An action agenda to sustain ecosystem services. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Retrieved from
  51. IUCN. (2009). Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EBA), Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Retrieved from
  52. Jabareen, Y. T. (2008). Toward participatory equality: Protecting minority rights under international law. Israel Law Review, 41, 635–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kainuma, M., Matsuoka, Y., & Morita, T. (2003). Climate policy assessment – Asia-Pacific integrated modeling. Tokyo: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kanninen, M., Murdiyarso, D., Seymour, F., Angelsen, A., Wunder, S., & German, L. (2007). Do trees grow on money? The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).Google Scholar
  55. Kates, R. W., Clark, W. C., Corell, R., Hall, J. M., Jaeger, C. C., Lowe, I., & Svedin, U. (2000). Sustainability science. Research and assessment systems for sustainability program discussion paper 2000–33. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  56. Kates, R. W., Clark, W. C., Corell, R., Hall, J. M., Jaeger, C. C., Lowe, I., & Svedin, U. (2001). Sustainability science. Science, 292(5517), 641–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kates, R., Parris, T. M., & Leiserowitz, A. A. (2005). What is sustainable development? Environment, 47(3), 9–21. Retrieved from Google Scholar
  58. Kenter, J. O., Hyde, T., Christie, M., & Fazey, I. (2011). The importance of deliberation in valuing ecosystem services in developing countries—Evidence from the Solomon Islands. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Larson, A., Barry, D., Dahal, R. G., & Colfer, C. (Eds.). (2010). Forests for people: Community rights and forest tenure reform. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  60. Lasco, R. D., & Boer, R. (2006). An integrated assessment of climate change impacts, adaptations and vulnerability in watershed areas and communities in Southeast Asia. A final report submitted to Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), project No. AS 21. Washington, DC: The International START Secretariat.Google Scholar
  61. Lasco, R. D., & Pulhin, F. B. (2001). Forestry mitigation options in the Philippines: Application of the COMAP model. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 6, 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lasco, R. D., Pulhin, F. B., Sanchez, P. A. J., Delfino, R. J. P., Gerpacio, R., & Garcia, K. (2009). Mainstreaming adaptation in developing countries: The case of the Philippines. Climate and Development, 1, 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lasco, R. D., Evangelista, R. S., & Pulhin, F. B. (2010). Potential of community-based forest management (CBFM) to mitigate climate change in the Philippines. Small Scale Forestry Journal, 9, 429–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. LCS-RNet. (2009). Time to act! Introduction to low carbon societies [Brochure]. Retrieved from
  65. Lebel, L., & Daniels, R. (2009). The governance of ecosystem services from tropical upland watersheds. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1(1), 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lebel, L., Sinh, B. T., & Nikitina, E. (2010). Adaptive governance of risks: Climate, water and disasters. In R. Shaw, J. Pulhin, & J. Pereira (Eds.), Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction: Issues and challenges (Series: Community, environment and disaster risk management, Vol. 4, pp. 115–142). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. LoCARNet. (2013). Draft strategic action plan. Kanagawa: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). Available from
  68. Maffi, L. (2007). Biocultural diversity and sustainability. In J. Pretty, A. Ball, T. Benton, J. Guivant, D. Lee, D. Orr, M. Pfeiffer, & H. Ward (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of environment and society (pp. 267–277). Los Angeles: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W. (1972). The limits to growth. New York: Universe Books.Google Scholar
  70. Menon-Choudhury, D., Shukla, P. R., Biswas, D., & Nag, T. (2006). Electricity reforms, firm level responses and environmental implications. In P. K. Kalra & J. Ruet (Eds.), Electricity act and technical choices for the power sector in India (pp. 183–216). New Delhi: Manohar.Google Scholar
  71. Mesarovic, M. D., & Pestel, E. (1974). Mankind at the turning point: The second report to the club of Rome. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
  72. Mexico City Workshop. (2002 May 20–23). Science and technology for sustainable development. Conclusions of a workshop to explore and synthesize findings from a two-year consultation process conducted by the International Council for Science, the InterAcademy Panel, the third world Academy of Sciences, and the Initiative on Science and Technology for Sustainability. Mexico City.Google Scholar
  73. Michel, D., & Pandya, A. (2010). Coastal zones and climate change. Washington, DC: Stimson Center. Retrieved from
  74. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and water synthesis. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  75. Mimura, N. (2006). Chapter 2: State of the environment in the Asia and Pacific coastal zones and effects of global change. In N. Harvey (Ed.), Global change and integrated coastal management: The Asia-Pacific region (pp. 17–38). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mimura, N., Nurse, L., McLean, R. F., Agard, J., Briguglio, L., Lefale, P., … & Sem, G. (2007). Small islands. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 687–716). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Mooney, H., Larigauderie, A., Cesario, M., Elmquist, T., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Lavorel, S., & Yahara, T. (2009). Biodiversity, climate change, and ecosystem services. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1(1), 46–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morita, T., Matsuoka, Y., Kainuma, M., Harasawa, H., & Kai, K. (1994). AIM–Asian-Pacific integrated model for evaluationg GHG emissions and global warming impacts (pp. 254–273). Bangkok, Thailand: In Global Warming Issues in Asia. Asian Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  79. Munang, R., Thiaw, I., Thompson, J., Ganz, D., Girvetz, E., & Rivington, M. (2011). Sustaining forests: Investing in our common future (UNEP policy series, Vol. 5). Nairobi: UNEP.Google Scholar
  80. Munasinghe, M. (2010). Addressing the sustainable development and climate change challenges together: Applying the sustainomics framework. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 41, 6634–6640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Naidu, S. C. (2011). Access to benefits from forest commons in the Western Himalayas. Ecological Economics, 71, 201–210. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Kyoto University, Ritsumeikan University, and Mizuho Information and Research Institute. (2008). Japan scenarios and actions towards Low-Carbon Societies (LCSs), Global Environmental Research Fund (GERF/S-3-1), Japan-UK Joint Research Project “a Sustainable Low-Carbon Society (LCS)”.Google Scholar
  83. Nordhaus, W. D. (1979). The efficient use of energy resources. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Pandey, D. P. (2007). Multifunctional agroforestry systems in India. Current Science, 92(4), 455–463.Google Scholar
  85. Perrings, C. (2010). Biodiversity, ecosystem services, and climate change: The economic problem (Environmental economics series, Vol. 120). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  86. Persha, L., Fischer, H., Chhatre, A., Agrawal, A., & Benson, C. (2010). Biodiversity conservation and livelihoods in human-dominated landscapes: Forest commons in South Asia. Biological Conservation, 143, 2918–2925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Phong, T., & Shaw, R. (2010). River basin management for effective disaster risk reduction in the face of changing climate. In R. Shaw, J. Puhin, & J. Pereira (Eds.), Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction: Issues and challenges (Series: Community, environment and disaster risk management, Vol. 4, pp. 265–289). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pulhin, J. M., Inoue, M., & Enters, T. (2007). Three decades of community-based forest management in the Philippines: Emerging lessons for sustainable and equitable forest management. International Forestry Review, 19(4), 865–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pulhin, J. M., Dizon, J. T., Cruz, R. V. O., Gevaña, D. T., & Dahal, G. R. (2008). Tenure reform on Philippine forest lands: Socio-economic and environmental impacts. UP Los Baños: CFNR-UPLB, CIFOR, and RRI.Google Scholar
  90. Pulhin, J. M., Lasco, R. D., Pulhin, F. B., Ramos, L., & Peras, R. J. J. (2010). Climate change adaptation and community forest management. In R. Shaw, J. Puhin, & J. Pereira (Eds.), Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction: Issues and challenges (Series: Community, environment and disaster risk management, Vol. 4, pp. 237–258). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  91. Ravindranath, N. H., Chaturvedi, R. K., & Murthy, I. K. (2008). Forest conservation, afforestation and reforestation in India: Implications for forest carbon stocks. Current Science, 95(2), 216–222.Google Scholar
  92. Revenga, C., Brunner, J., Henninger, N., Kassem, K., & Payne, R. (2000). Pilot analysis of global ecosystems freshwater systems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  93. Robinson, J., Bradley, M., Busby, P., Connor, D., Murray, A., Sampson, B., & Soper, W. (2006). Climate change and sustainable development: Realizing the opportunity. Ambio, 35, 2–8.Google Scholar
  94. Schipper, E. L. F. (2007). Climate change adaptation and development: Exploring the linkages. Tyndall centre working paper No. 107. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. Available from
  95. Shukla, P. R., Chandler, W., Ghosh, D., & Logan, J. (1999). Developing countries & global climate change, electric power options in India. Washington, DC: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.Google Scholar
  96. Shukla, P. R., Nag, T., & Biswas, D. (2005). Electricity reforms and firm level responses: Changing ownership, fuel choices and technology decisions. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 23(2–3), 260–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sneddon, C., Howarth, R. B., & Norgaard, R. B. (2006). Sustainable development in a post-Brundtland world. Ecological Economics, 57, 253–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sodhi, N. S., Koh, L. P., Brook, B. W., & Ng, P. K. L. (2004). Southeast Asian biodiversity: An impending disaster. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 654–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. SRES. (2000). Special report on emissions scenarios prepared for policy makers by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) working group III. ISBN 92-9169-113-5.Google Scholar
  100. Statement of the Friibergh Workshop on Sustainability Science. (2000 October 11–14 ). Friibergh, Sweden. Retrieved from
  101. Sunderlin, W. D., Angelsen, A., Belcher, B., Burgers, P., Nasi, R., Santoso, L., & Wunder, S. (2005). Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: An overview. World Development, 33, 1383–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tallis, H., Kareiva, P., Marvier, M., & Chang, A. (2008). An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development. PNAS, 105(28), 9457–9464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thomas, S., Dargusch, P., Harrison, S., & Herbohn, J. (2010). Why are there so few afforestation and reforestation clean development mechanism projects? Land Use Policy, 27, 880–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. UN (2010). Oceans and climate change. Office of Legal Affairs. Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea United Nations.Google Scholar
  105. UNEP. (2006). Marine and coastal ecosystems and human wellbeing: A synthesis report based on the findings of the millennium ecosystem assessment. Nairobi: UNEP.Google Scholar
  106. UNEP. (2009a). Ecosystem management: Part of the climate change solution. UNEP Research Brief. Retrieved from
  107. UNEP. (2009b, June). The role of ecosystem management in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Copenhagen discussion series paper 2. Retrieved from
  108. UNEP. (2011). Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication: A synthesis for policy makers. Retrieved from
  109. UNEP (n.d). Ecosystem management: Part of the climate change solution. UNEP Research Brief.
  110. UNEP-WCMC. (2008). National and regional networks of marine protected areas: A review of progress. Cambridge, UK: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).Google Scholar
  111. USAID. (2010). Adapting to coastal climate change: A guidebook for development planners. Retrieved from
  112. van Vuuren, D. P., Edmonds, J., Kainuma, M., Riahi, K., Thomson, A., Hibbard, K., … & Rose, S. K. (2011). The representative concentration pathways: An overview. Climatic Change, 109, 5–31. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vickers, B., Kant, P., Lasco, R., Bleany, A., Milne, S., Suzuki, R., … & Pohnan, E. (2010). Forests and climate change in the Asia Pacific region (Forests and climate change working paper, Vol. 7). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  114. Wetlands International. (2009). The global peatland CO 2 picture. Peatland status and drainage related emissions in all countries of the world. The Netherlands: Wetlands International, Ede.Google Scholar
  115. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987). Our common future. Report of the Buntland Commission/WCED. Published as annex to general assembly document A/42/427, Development and International Co-operation: Environment.Google Scholar
  116. Xiulian, H., & Kejun, J. (2008). Country Scenarios toward Low-Carbon Society (LCS). The Third workshop of Japan-UK joint research project. National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan.Google Scholar
  117. Yeo-Chang, Y. (2009). Use of forest resources, traditional forest-related knowledge and livelihood of forest dependent communities: Cases in South Korea. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(10), 2027–2034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yohe, G. W., Lasco, R. D., Ahmad, Q. K., Arnell, N. W., Cohen, S. J., Hope, C., … & Perez, R. T. (2007). Perspectives on climate change and sustainability. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 811–841). Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodel Lasco
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yasuko Kameyama
    • 2
  • Kejun Jiang
    • 3
  • Linda Peñalba
    • 4
  • Juan Pulhin
    • 5
  • P. R. Shukla
    • 6
  • Suneetha M. Subramanian
    • 7
  1. 1.World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Khush HallIRRILos BanosPhilippines
  2. 2.Centre for Global Environmental ResearchNational Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukuba-CityJapan
  3. 3.Energy Research Institute, National Development and Reform CommissionBeijingChina
  4. 4.Institute of Governance and Rural Development, College of Public AffairsUniversity of the Philippines Los Baños, CollegeLos BanosPhilippines
  5. 5.Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance, College of Forestry and Natural ResourceUniversity of the Philippines Los Baños, CollegeLos BanosPhilippines
  6. 6.Public Systems GroupIndian Institute of ManagementVastrapur, AhmedabadIndia
  7. 7.United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS)6F International Organizations CenterYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations