Molecular-Genetic Testing in Penile, Scrotal, and Testicular Cancer

  • Nicholas A. Whitling
  • Sharon M. Hirsh
  • Rodney E. ShackelfordEmail author
Part of the Cancer Growth and Progression book series (CAGP, volume 16)


Malignant tumors of the penis, scrotum, and testes are rare, accounting for roughly 0.5 % of all male tumors. Presently the diagnosis of these tumors depends mainly on histologic examination, supplemented with immunohistochemistry. Over the past 20 years, however, many genetic changes have been identified that are largely specific to different tumors and tumor classes, such as 12p gains in testicular germ cell tumors. Although not commonly employed in the analysis of these tumors, molecular genetic testing is now available for many of these tumors and is becoming an increasingly important adjunct in their diagnosis and treatment. Here, we summarize what is known about the molecular pathology of these tumors and some of the molecular testing modalities currently available. We also briefly discuss the possible future molecular diagnostics of these tumors.


Germ cell tumor Testes Seminoma Granulosa cell tumor Leydig cell tumor HPV Genotyping Cryptorchidism Mesothelioma 



Aggressive angiomyxoma




Comparative genomic hybridization


Desmoplastic small round cell tumor


Fluorescent in situ hybridization


Human chorionic gonadotropin


Human papilloma virus


Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified


Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors


Leydig cell tumors


Not otherwise specified


Placental-like alkaline phosphatase




Squamous cell carcinoma


Yolk sac tumors


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas A. Whitling
    • 1
  • Sharon M. Hirsh
    • 1
  • Rodney E. Shackelford
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineTulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

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