Swarm Planning pp 117-161 | Cite as

The Use of Spatial Planning to Increase the Resilience for Future Turbulence in the Spatial System of the Groningen Region to Deal with Climate Change

  • Rob RoggemaEmail author
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


The province of Groningen is responsible for a good spatial policy. Main focal areas of interest are living, economic and social development, water management, transport and traffic environmental policy. These fields are integrated on a regular basis in a regional plan, which is made for the entire provincial area. In 2008 a new regional plan has been developed. The circumstances and context determine the content of the plan in a strong way. The current timeframe distinguishes itself in the way long-term developments appear. The supply of energy is uncertain, because fossil resources will be depleted within 40 years from now. The changes in climate are unpredictable as well, but they will have, for sure, a major impact on society. The turbulence in today’s and the future’s world is and will be strongly determined by the issues of energy supply (and prices) and climate change (and disasters). For a province it is important to respond to these developments in the most appropriate way, i.e. with the lowest risk and the lowest chance on problems for its inhabitants. The province of Groningen wants to be prepared to withstand eventual rapid changes and prepare its people by increasing resilience in its spatial planning (Roggema 2008a). In order to create more resilience in its regional plan the province explores in several research steps (Fig. 5.1) the adaptability of spatial systems and the way they may be influenced. In Sect. 5.2 the background of climate change on a sub-regional level as well as the relevant aspects of complexity and adaptive systems are explored. This section concludes with the characteristics of an emerging new planning paradigm: swarm planning. Section 5.3 explores the possibilities to use this planning paradigm in the Groningen case. This contribution finishes with a discussion on the benefits and disadvantages of the new paradigm (Sect. 5.4) and finalises with conclusions (Sect. 5.5).


Resilience Groningen Unpredictability Complex adaptive systems Regional plan 


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ArchitectureDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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