South Australia’s Large Inverse Estuaries: On the Road to Ruin

  • Jochen KämpfEmail author
Part of the Estuaries of the World book series (EOTW)


This chapter provides an overview of the past, present and likely future of South Australian gulfs – Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent. It describes the distinct physical factors shaping these inverse estuaries, their unique ecology, past environmental degradation and future threats. Rather than direct climate-change impacts, the reader will learn that traditional industrialization poses the biggest threat to the gulfs’ ecosystem health, despite recent enhanced efforts of protection and conservation of natural habitat.


Spencer Gulf Gulf St. Vincent Inverse estuary Ecosystem Environmental degradation Future threats 



This work has not received financial support. The author thanks Dan Monceaux and Emma Sterling for the provision of background information.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of the EnvironmentFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

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