Advertisement

Nonindigenous Marine Jellyfish: Invasiveness, Invasibility, and Impacts

  • Keith M. BayhaEmail author
  • William M. Graham
Chapter

Abstract

The marine jellyfishes (herein referring to pelagic scyphozoans, hydrozoans, and ctenophores) have been increasingly recognized as important nuisance species in ecosystems around the world, impacting fisheries, injuring swimmers, and clogging the intakes of power plants, among other effects. These animals have independently evolved life history and reproductive strategies that allow them to quickly reach large abundances and exert considerable ecological and economic impacts over their native ecosystems. However, many of these same adaptations have also led to the success of marine jellyfishes as bioinvaders, as many have established themselves as important predators in nonnative ecosystems around the globe. Here, we examine the role of marine jellyfishes as nonindigenous species. We begin by reviewing what is known about the invasion histories of the major nonindigenous jellyfishes and then analyze organismal attributes of marine jellyfishes that promote their success as bioinvaders (invasiveness) and characteristics of recipient ecosystems that increase likelihood of successful invasions by marine jellies (invasibility). We conclude by examining how these have interacted to determine which species have bloomed in their recipient ecosystems, exerting significant ecological and economic effects (impacts).

Keywords

Jellyfish blooms Nonindigenous species Invasiveness Invisibility Scyphomedusae Hydromedusae Ctenophores Reproductive strategies Phenotypic plasticity Anthropogenic disturbance 

Notes

Acknowledgments

 We are grateful to our colleagues listed above who contributed photographs to this chapter. This chapter was improved by the efforts of the book editors (K.A. Pitt and C.H. Lucas) and two anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. Abed-Navandi D, Kikinger R (2007) First record of the tropical scyphomedusa Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 (Cnidaria: Rhizostomeae) in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Aquat Inv 2:391–394Google Scholar
  2. Agassiz L (1862) Contributions to the natural history of the United States. IV. Little, Brown and Company, BostonGoogle Scholar
  3. Agassiz A (1892) Reports on the dredging operations off the west coast of Central America to the Galapagos, to the west coast of Mexico, and in the Gulf of California, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, carried on by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross”, Lieut. Commander Z.L. Tanner, U.S.N., commanding. Bull Mus Comp Zool 23:1–90Google Scholar
  4. Alpert P, Bone E, Holzapfel C (2000) Invasiveness, invasibility and the role of environmental stress in the spread of non-native plants. Perspect Plant Ecol 3:52–66Google Scholar
  5. Alvarez-Silva C (1999) Ampliación de ámbito de Blackfordia virginica (Leptomedusae: Lovenellidae) en lagunas costeras del Pacífico mexicano. Revista Biologia Tropical 47:281Google Scholar
  6. Alvarez-Silva C, Gómez-Aguirre S, Miranda-Arce MG (2003) Variaciones morfológicas en Blackfordia virginica (Hydroidomedusa: Leptomedusae: Blackfordiidae) en lagunas costeras de Chiapas, México. Rev Biol Trop 51:409–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arai M (1997) A functional biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Arai M (2009) The potential importance of podocysts to the formation of scyphozoan blooms: a review. Hydrobiologia 206:241–246Google Scholar
  9. Arenas F, Sánchez I, Hawkins SJ, Jenkins SR (2006) The invasibility of marine algal assemblages: role of functional diversity and identity. Ecology 87:2851–2861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker ID, Reeve MR (1974) Laboratory culture of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi with notes on feeding and fecundity. Mar Biol 26:57–62Google Scholar
  11. Bardi J, Marques AC (2009) The invasive hydromedusae Blackfordia virginica Mayer, 1910 (Cnidaria: Blackfordiidae) in southern Brazil, with comments on taxonomy and distribution of the genus Blackfordia. Zootaxa 2198:41–50Google Scholar
  12. Barord G, Graham W, Bayha K (2007) First report of the invasive medusa, Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld (1884) in Galveston Bay, Texas. Gulf Mex Sci 25:162–164Google Scholar
  13. Bavestrello G, Sommer C, Sarà M (1992) Bi-directional conversion in Turritopsis nutricula (Hydrozoa). In: Bouillon J, Boero F, Cicogna F, Gili JM, Hughes RG (eds) Aspects of hydrozoan biology. Sci Mar 56:137–140Google Scholar
  14. Bayha K (2005) The molecular systematics and population genetics of four coastal ctenophores and scyphozoan jellyfish of the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Dissertation, University of DelawareGoogle Scholar
  15. Bayha KM, Graham WM (2009) A new Taqman© PCR-based method for the detection and identification of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps. Hydrobiologia 616:217–228Google Scholar
  16. Bayha KM, Graham WM (2011) First confirmed reports of the rhizostome jellyfish Mastigias (Cnidaria: Rhizostomeae) in the Atlantic basin. Aquat Inv 6:361–366Google Scholar
  17. Bayha KM, Harbison GR, McDonald JH, Gaffney PM (2004) Preliminary investigation on the molecular systematics of the invasive ctenophore Beroe ovata. In: Dumont H, Shiganova TA, Niermann U (eds) Aquatic invasions in the Black, Caspian and Mediterranean Seas. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 167–176Google Scholar
  18. Bilio M, Niermann U (2004) Is the comb jelly really to blame for it all? Mnemiopsis leidyi and the ecological concerns about the Caspian Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 269:173–183Google Scholar
  19. Boero F, Putti M, Trainito E, Prontera E, Piraino S, Shiganova T (2009) Recent changes in Western Mediterranean Sea biodiversity: the establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora) and the arrival of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria). Aquat Inv 4:675–680Google Scholar
  20. Boersma M, Malzahn A, Greve W, Javidpour J (2007) The first occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North Sea. Helgol Mar Res 61:153–155Google Scholar
  21. Bolton TF, Graham WM (2006) Jellyfish on the rocks: bioinvasion threat of the international trade in aquarium live rock. Biol Inv 8:651–653Google Scholar
  22. Bouillon J, Boero F (2000) Synopsis of the families and genera of the hydromedusae of the world, with a list of the worldwide species. Thalassia Salent 24:47–96Google Scholar
  23. Boulenger CL (1908) On Moerisia lyonsi, a new hydromedusan from Lake Qurun. Q J Microsc Sci 52:357–378Google Scholar
  24. Brotz L, Cheung WWL, Kleisner K, Pakhomov E, Pauly D (2012) Increasing jellyfish populations: trends in Large Marine Ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 690:3–20Google Scholar
  25. Buecher E, Goy J, Gibbons MJ (2005) Hydromedusae of the Agulhas Current. Afr Invertebr 46:27–69Google Scholar
  26. Burns JH (2008) Demographic performance predicts invasiveness in the Commelinaceae under high-nutrient conditions. Ecol App 18:335–346Google Scholar
  27. Burrell VG, van Engel WA (1976) Predation by and distribution of a ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, in the York River estuary. Estuar Coast Mar Sci 4:235–242Google Scholar
  28. Byers JE (2002) Impact of non-indigenous species on natives enhanced by anthropogenic alteration of selection regimes. Oikos 97:449–458Google Scholar
  29. Calder DR (1993) Local distribution and biogeography of the hydroids (Cnidaria) of Bermuda. Caribb J Sci 29:61–74Google Scholar
  30. Calder DR (2009) Cubozoan and scyphozoan jellyfishes of the Carolinian biogeographic province. Southeastern U.S.A. Royal Ontario Museum, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  31. Calder DR, Burrell VG Jr (1967) Occurrence of Moerisia lyonsi (Limnomedusae, Moerisiidae) in North America. Am Midl Nat 78:540–541Google Scholar
  32. Calder DR, Burrell VG Jr (1969) Brackish water hydromedusa Maeotias inexpectata in North America. Nature 222:694–695Google Scholar
  33. Carlton JT (1985) Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 23:313–371Google Scholar
  34. Carlton J, Geller J (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78–82Google Scholar
  35. Çevik C, Erkol IL, Toklu B (2006) A new record of an alien jellyfish from the Levantine coast of Turkey – Cassiopea andromeda (Forsskål, 1775) [Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Rhizostomea]. Aquat Inv 1:196–197Google Scholar
  36. Çevik C, Derici OB, Çevik F, Cavas L (2011) First record of Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae: Mastigiidae) from Turkey. Aquat Inv 6:S27–S28Google Scholar
  37. Chicharo MA, Leitão TL, Range P, Gutierrez C, Morales J, Morais P, Chicharo L (2009) Alien species in Guadiana Estuary (SE-Portugal/SW-Spain): Blackfordia virginica (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) and Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea, Decapoda): potential impacts and mitigation measures. Aquat Inv 4:501–506Google Scholar
  38. Chun C (1880) Die Ctenophoren des Golfes von Neapel. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  39. Coles S, DeFelice R, Eldredge L, Carlton J (1999) Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Mar Biol 135:147–158Google Scholar
  40. Condon RH, Decker MB, Purcell JE (2001) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on survival and asexual reproduction of scyphozoan polyps (Chrysaora quinquecirrha). Hydrobiologia 451:89–95Google Scholar
  41. Condon RH, Graham WM, Duarte CM, Pitt KA, Lucas CH, Haddock SHD, Sutherland KR, Robinson KL, Dawson MN, Decker MB, Mills CE, Purcell JE, Malej A, Mianzan H, Uye S, Gelcich S, Madin L (2012) Questioning the rise of gelatinous zooplankton in the world’s oceans. BioScience 62:160–169Google Scholar
  42. Costello JH, Sullivan BK, Gifford DJ, Van Keuren D, Sullivan LJ (2006) Seasonal refugia, shoreward thermal amplification and metapopulation dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1819–1831Google Scholar
  43. Costello JH, Bayha KM, Mianzan HW, Shiganova TA, Purcell JE (2012) Transitions of Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata) from a native to an exotic species: a review. Hydrobiologia 690:21–46Google Scholar
  44. Cronin LE, Daiber JC, Hulber EM (1962) Quantitative seasonal aspects of zooplankton in the Delaware River Estuary. Chesapeake Sci 3:63–93Google Scholar
  45. Cutress C (1971) Phyllorhiza punctata in the tropical Atlantic. Association of Inland Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, 9th meeting, Cumana, 11–15 Oct 1971, 14 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Daskalov GM, Grishin AN, Rodionov S, Mihneva V (2007) Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10518–10523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dawson MN (2003) Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Mar Biol 143:369–379Google Scholar
  48. Dawson MN (2005a) Cyanea capillata is not a cosmopolitan jellyfish: morphological and molecular evidence for C. annaskala and C. rosea (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae: Cyaneidae) in south-eastern Australia. Invert Syst 19:361–370Google Scholar
  49. Dawson MN (2005b) Five new subspecies of Mastigias (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae: Mastigiidae) from marine lakes, Palau, Micronesia. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:679–694Google Scholar
  50. Dawson MN, Hamner WM (2009) A character-based analysis of the evolution of jellyfish blooms: adaptation and exaptation. Hydrobiologia 616:193–215Google Scholar
  51. Dawson MN, Jacobs D (2001) Molecular evidence for cryptic species of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Biol Bull 200:92–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dawson MN, Martin LE, Penland LK (2001) Jellyfish swarms, tourists, and the Christ-child. Hydrobiologia 451:131–144Google Scholar
  53. Dawson M, Gupta A, England M (2005) Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:11968–11973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Decker MB, Breitburg DL, Purcell JE (2004) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on zooplankton predation by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 280:163–172Google Scholar
  55. Deidun A, Arrigo A, Piraino S (2011) The westernmost record of Rhopilema nomadica (Galil, 1990) in the Mediterranean – off the Maltese Islands. Aquat Inv 6:S99–S103Google Scholar
  56. Denayer JC (1973) Trois méduses nouvelles ou peu connues des côtes françaises: Maeotias inexspectata Ostroumov, 1896, Blackfordia virginica Mayer, 1910, Nemopsis bachei Agassiz, 1849. Cah Biol Mar 14:285–294Google Scholar
  57. Devaney D, Eldredge L (1977) Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 1: protozoa through Ctenophora. Bernice P Bishop Mus Spec Publ 64Google Scholar
  58. Doty M (1961) Acanthophora, a possible invader of the marine flora of Hawaii. Pac Sci 15:547–552Google Scholar
  59. Drake J, Lodge D (2007) Hull fouling is a risk factor for intercontinental species exchange in aquatic ecosystems. Aquat Inv 2:121–131Google Scholar
  60. Eldredge L, Smith C (2001) A guidebook of introduced marine species in Hawaii. Bishop Museum tech report 21, 70 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasion by plants and animals. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Faasse MA, Bayha KM (2006) The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz 1865 in coastal waters of the Netherlands: an unrecognized invasion? Aquat Inv 1:270–277Google Scholar
  63. Fautin DG (2002) Reproduction of Cnidaria. Can J Zool 80:1735–1754Google Scholar
  64. Feigenbaum D, Kelly M (1984) Changes in the lower Chesapeake Bay food chain in the presence of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Scyphomedusa). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 19:39–47Google Scholar
  65. Finenko GA, Kideys AE, Anninsky BE, Shiganova TA, Roohi A, Tabari MR, Rostami H, Bagheri A (2006) Invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Caspian Sea: feeding, respiration, reproduction and predatory impact on the zooplankton community. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 314:171–185Google Scholar
  66. Finenko GA, Arashkevitch EG, Kideys AE, Roohi A, Mirzajani A, Bagheri S, Birinci Z, Ustun F, Satilmis H, Sahin F, Bat L (2011) Reproductive characteristics and growth rate of ctenophore Beroe ovata larvae in the Caspian and Black Sea waters. Морський екологічний журнал (Marine Environmental Magazine) 1:77–85Google Scholar
  67. Fuentes VL, Angel DL, Bayha KM, Atienza D, Edelist D, Bordehore C, Gili JM, Purcell JE (2010) Blooms of the invasive ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, span the Mediterranean Sea in 2009. Hydrobiologia 645:23–37Google Scholar
  68. Funk JL, Vitousik PM (2007) Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems. Nature 446:1079–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Galil B (2007) Seeing red: alien species along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Aquat Inv 2:281–312Google Scholar
  70. Galil B (2010) The price of change: jellyfish outbreaks along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. In: Report of the workshop on Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and the Black sea. General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean (GFCM), Istanbul, 6–8 Oct 2010, pp 3–4Google Scholar
  71. Galil BS, Zenetos A (2002) A sea change. Exotics in the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts, and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 325–336Google Scholar
  72. Galil B, Spanier E, Ferguson W (1990) The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean. Zool Meded 64:95–105Google Scholar
  73. Galil BS, Kress N, Shiganova TA (2009) First record of Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 (Ctenophora Lobata Mnemiidae) off the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Aquat Inv 4:356–362Google Scholar
  74. Galil BS, Gevili R, Shiganova TA (2011) Not far behind: first record of Beroe ovata Mayer, 1912 (Ctenophora: Beroida: Beroidae) off the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Aquat Inv 6:S89–S90Google Scholar
  75. Garcia J (1990) Population dynamics and production of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in Laguna Joyuda, Puerto Rico. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 64:243–251Google Scholar
  76. Garcia J, Durbin E (1993) Zooplanktivorous predation by large scyphomedusae Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in Laguna Joyuda. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 173:71–93Google Scholar
  77. Genzano G, Mianzan H, Acha EM, Gaitán E (2006) Primer registro de la medusa invasora Blackfordia virginica (Hydrozoa: Leptomedusae) en el estuario del Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguai. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 79:257–261Google Scholar
  78. GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/WMO/WHOI/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution) (1997) Opportunistic settlers and the problem of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi invasion in the Black Sea. GESAMP reports and studies no. 58. International Maritime Organization, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Ghabooli S, Shiganova TA, Zhan A, Cristescu ME, Eghtesadi-Araghi P, MacIsaac HJ (2010) Multiple introductions and invasion pathways for the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Eurasia. Biol Inv 13:679–690Google Scholar
  80. Godwin L (2003) Hull fouling of maritime vessels as a pathway for marine species invasions to the Hawaiian Islands. Biofouling 19:123–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gollasch S, Leppäkoski E (1999) Initial risk assessment of marine alien species in Nordic waters. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. Nord 1999: 8. 244 ppGoogle Scholar
  82. Gomez-D’aglio L, Dawson MN (2009) Evolutionary biogeography of shallow water jellyfishes (Scyphozoa: Discomedusae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. In: International conference of the International Biogeography Society, 4th meeting, Merida, 8–12 Jan 2009Google Scholar
  83. Gordina AD, Zagorodnyaya JA, Kideys AE, Satilmis AE (2005) Summer ichthyoplankton, food supply of fish larvae in the Black Sea during 2000 and 2001. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:537–548Google Scholar
  84. Goy J, Lakkis S, Zeidane R (1988) Les Meduses de la Méditerranée Orientale, Rapp P-v Réun de la Comm Int l’Explor scient Mer Médit 31:299Google Scholar
  85. Goy J, Morand P, Etienne M (1989) Long-term fluctuations of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphomedusae) in the western Mediterranean Sea, prediction by climatic variables. Deep-Sea Res 36:269–379Google Scholar
  86. Graham WM, Bayha KM (2007) Biological invasions by marine jellyfish. In: Nentwig W (ed) Ecological studies, vol 193, Biological invasions. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 239–255Google Scholar
  87. Graham W, Martin D, Felder D, Asper V, Perry H (2003) Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biol Inv 5:53–69Google Scholar
  88. Granhag L, Møller F, Johanhansson L (2011) Size-specific clearance rates of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi based on in situ gut content analyses. J Plankton Res 33:1043–1052Google Scholar
  89. Gücü AC (2002) Can overfishing be responsible for the successful establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea? Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 54:439–451Google Scholar
  90. Gülşahin N, Tarkan AN (2011) The first confirmed record of the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990 from the southern Aegean coast of Turkey. Aquat Invasions 6(suppl 1):S95–S97Google Scholar
  91. Gusmani L, Avian M, Galil B, Patriarca P, Rottini G (1997) Biologically active polypeptides in the venom of the jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica. Toxicon 35:637–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Haeckel E (1880) System der Acraspeden. Zweite Halfte des System der Medusen. Verlag von Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  93. Hamer HH, Malzahn AM, Boersma M (2011) The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: a threat to fish recruitment in the North Sea? J Plankton Res 33:137–144Google Scholar
  94. Hamner WM, Dawson MN (2009) A review and synthesis on the systematics and evolution of jellyfish blooms: advantageous aggregations and adaptive assemblages. Hydrobiologia 616:161–191Google Scholar
  95. Han CM, Uye SI (2010) Combined effects of food supply and temperature on asexual reproduction and somatic growth of polyps of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Plankt Benth Res 5:98–105Google Scholar
  96. Hansson HG (2006) Ctenophores of the Baltic and adjacent Seas – the invader Mnemiopsis is here! Aquat Inv 1:295–298Google Scholar
  97. Harrison GF (2010) A founder effect in Blackfordia virginica in the United States and a comparison of Blackfordia virginica from the United States and Brazil. Thesis, American UniversityGoogle Scholar
  98. Harrison GF, Kim K, Collins AG (in press) Low genetic diversity of the putatively introduced, brackish water hydrozoan Blackfordia virginica (Leptothecata: Blackfordiidae), through the United States, with a new record for Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. P Biol Soc Wash 126:91–102Google Scholar
  99. Haslob H, Clemmesen C, Schaber M, Hinrichsen HH, Schmidt JO, Voss R, Kraus G, Koster FW (2007) Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 349:303–306Google Scholar
  100. Häussermann V, Dawson MN, Försterra G (2009) First record of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia for Chile. Spixiana 32:3–7Google Scholar
  101. Hay S (2006) Gelatinous bells may ring change in marine ecosystems. Curr Biol 16:679–682Google Scholar
  102. Hofmann DK, Honegger TG (1990) Bud formation and metamorphosis in Cassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa): a developmental and ultrastructural study. Mar Biol 105:509–518Google Scholar
  103. Holland B, Dawson MN, Crow G, Hofmann G (2004) Global phylogeography of Cassiopea (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae): molecular evidence for cryptic species and multiple invasions of the Hawaiian Islands. Mar Biol 145:1119–1128Google Scholar
  104. Holst S, Sötje I, Tiemann H, Jarms G (2007) Life cycle of the rhizostome jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus (L.) (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae), with studies on cnidocysts and statoliths. Mar Biol 151:1695–1710Google Scholar
  105. Hosia A, Titelman J (2010) Intraguild predation between the native North Sea jellyfish Cyanea capillata and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. J Plankton Res 33:535–540Google Scholar
  106. Hosia A, Titelman J, Hansson LJ, Haraldsson M (2011) Interactions between native and alien ctenophores: Beroe gracilis and Mnemiopsis leidyi in Gullmarsfjorden. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 422:129–138Google Scholar
  107. Hummelinck PW (1941) Medusenfunde von Maeotias marginata (Modeer) in den Niederlanden. Zool Anz 136(1/2):9–17Google Scholar
  108. Hyman LH (1940) The invertebrates: protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Ishii H, Takagi A (2003) Development time of planula larvae on the oral arms of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita. J Plankton Res 25:1447–1450Google Scholar
  110. Ishii H, Ohba T, Kobayashi T (2008) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on planulae settlement, polyp growth and asexual reproduction of Aurelia aurita. Plankt Benth Res 3(Suppl P):107–113Google Scholar
  111. Ivanov VP, Kamakin AM, Ushivtsev VB, Shiganova TA, Zhukova OP, Aladin N, Wilson SI, Harbison GR, Dumont HJ (2000) Invasion of the Caspian Sea by the comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Biol Inv 2:255–258Google Scholar
  112. Jaspers C, Titelman J, Hansson LJ, Haraldsson M, Ditlefsen CR (2011) The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae. Limnol Oceanogr 56:431–439Google Scholar
  113. Javidpour J, Sommer U, Shiganova TA (2006) First record of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Baltic Sea. Aquat Inv 1:299–302Google Scholar
  114. Johnson D, Perry H, Graham W (2005) Using nowcast model currents to explore transport of non-indigenous jellyfish into the Gulf of Mexico. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 305:139–146Google Scholar
  115. Keller C (1888) Die Wanderung der marinen Thierwelt im Suezcanal. Zool Anz 11(359–364):389–395Google Scholar
  116. Kideys AE (1994) Recent dramatic changes in the Black Sea ecosystem: the reason for the sharp decline in Turkish anchovy fisheries. J Mar Syst 5:171–181Google Scholar
  117. Kideys AE (2002) Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem. Science 297:1482–1484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kideys AE, Gücü AC (1995) Rhopilema nomadica: a Lessepsian scyphomedusan new to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Israel J Zool 41:615–617Google Scholar
  119. Kideys AE, Niermann U (1993) Intrusion of Mnemiopsis mccradyi (Ctenophora; Lobata) into the Mediterranean Sea. Senck Marit 23:43–47Google Scholar
  120. Kideys AE, Niermann U (1994) Occurrence of Mnemiopsis along the Turkish coast. ICES J Mar Sci 51:423–427Google Scholar
  121. Kideys AE, Finenko GA, Anninsky BE, Shiganova TA, Roohi A, Tabari MR, Youseffyan M, Rostamian MT, Rostami H, Negarestan H (2004) Physiological characteristics of the ctenophore Beroe ovata in Caspian Sea water. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 266:111–121Google Scholar
  122. Knowler D (2005) Reassessing the costs of biological invasion: Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black sea. Ecol Econ 52:187–199Google Scholar
  123. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Korsun S, Hahrni JF, Pawlowski J (2012) Invading Aurelia aurita has established scyphistomae populations in the Caspian Sea. Mar Biol 159:1061–1069Google Scholar
  125. Kramp P (1961) Synopsis of the medusae of the world. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 40:7–382Google Scholar
  126. Kremer P (1979) Predation by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Estuaries 2:97–105Google Scholar
  127. Kremer P (1994) Patterns of abundance for Mnemiopsis in U.S. coastal waters: a comparative overview. ICES J Mar Sci 51:347–354Google Scholar
  128. Lakkis S, Zeidane R (1991) Jellyfish swarm along the Lebanese coast (Abstract) Lebanese Association for the Advancement of Science 11th Science Meeting American University of BeirutGoogle Scholar
  129. Larson RJ (1987) In situ feeding rates of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi. Estuaries 10:87–91Google Scholar
  130. Larson R, Arneson A (1990) Two medusae new to the coast of California: Carybdea marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758), a cubomedusa and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, a rhizostome scyphomedusa. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 89:130–136Google Scholar
  131. Levine JM, D’Antonio CM (1999) Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87:15–26Google Scholar
  132. Lockwood JL, Cassey P, Blackburn T (2005) The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 20:223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lodge DM (1993) Biological invasions: lessons for ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 8:133–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lonhart SI (2009) Natural and climate change mediated invasions. In: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems, ecological studies, vol 204. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 57–69Google Scholar
  135. Lonsdale WM (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80:1522–1536Google Scholar
  136. Lotan A, Ben-Hillel R, Loya Y (1992) Life cycle of Rhopilema nomadica: a new immigrant scyphomedusan in the Mediterranean. Mar Biol 112:237–242Google Scholar
  137. Lotan A, Fine M, Ben-Hillel R (1994) Synchronization of the life cycle and dispersal pattern of the tropical invader scyphomedusan Rhopilema nomadica is temperature dependent. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 109:59–65Google Scholar
  138. Lucas CH (1996) Population dynamics of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) from an isolated brackish lake, with particular reference to sexual reproduction. J Plankton Res 18:987–1007Google Scholar
  139. Lucas CH (2001) Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment. Hydrobiologia 451:229–246Google Scholar
  140. Maas O (1903) Die Scyphomedusen der Siboga expedition. Siboga Exped 1901(11):1–91Google Scholar
  141. Martindale MQ (1987) Larval reproduction in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi (Order Lobata). Mar Biol 94:409–414Google Scholar
  142. Mayer A (1910) Medusae of the world, III: the Scyphomedusae. Carnegie Institute Publishing, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  143. Mayer AG (1912) Ctenophores of the Atlantic coast of North America. Carnegie Institute Publishing, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  144. Meek MH, Wintzer AP, Shepherd N, May B (2013) Genetic diversity and reproductive mode in two non-native hydromedusae, Maeotias marginata and Moerisia sp., in the upper San Francisco Estuary, California. Biol Inv 15:199–212Google Scholar
  145. Mianzan H (1999) Ctenophora. In: Boltovskoy D (ed) South Atlantic Zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 561–573Google Scholar
  146. Mianzan HW, Cornelius PFS (1999) Cubomedusae and Scyphomedusae. In: Boltovskoy D (ed) South Atlantic zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 513–559Google Scholar
  147. Miglietta MP, Lessios HA (2009) A silent invasion. Biol Inv 11:825–834Google Scholar
  148. Miglietta MP, Piraino S, Kubota S, Schuchert P (2007) Species in the genus Turritopsis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): a molecular evaluation. J Zool Syst Evol Res 45:11–19Google Scholar
  149. Migotto A, Marques A, Morandini A, Fd S (2002) Checklist of the Cnidarian medusozoa of Brazil. Biota Neotropica 2:1–31Google Scholar
  150. Milbau A, Stout JC (2008) Factors associated with alien plants transitioning from casual, to naturalized to invasive. Conserv Biol 22:308–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Miller MEC, Graham WM (2012) Environmental evidence that seasonal hypoxia enhances survival and success of jellyfish polyps in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J Mar Biol Ecol 432–433:113–120Google Scholar
  152. Mills C (2001) Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451:55–68Google Scholar
  153. Mills CE, Rees JT (2000) New observations and corrections concerning the trio of invasive hydromedusae Maeotias marginata, Blackfordia virginica, and Moerisia sp. in the San Francisco Estuary. In: Mills CE, Boero F, Migotto A, Gili JM (eds) Trends in hydrozoan biology IV. Sci Mar 64(Supl. 1):151–155Google Scholar
  154. Mills CE, Sommer F (1995) Invertebrate introductions in marine habitats: two species of hydromedusae (Cnidaria) native to the Black Sea, Maeotias inexspectata and Blackfordia virginica, invade San Francisco Bay. Mar Biol 122:279–288Google Scholar
  155. Möller H (1980) Scyphomedusae as predators and food competitors of larval fish. Meeresforsch 28:90–100Google Scholar
  156. Monteleone DM, Duguay LE (1988) Laboratory studies of predation by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi on the early stages in the life history of the bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli. J Plankton Res 10:359–372Google Scholar
  157. Moore SJ (1987) Redescription of the leptomedusan Blackfordia virginica. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 67:287–291Google Scholar
  158. Moreira M (1961) Sobre Mastigias scintillae sp. nov. (Scyphomedusae, Rhizostomeae) das costas do Brasil. Bol Inst Oceanogr 11:5–30Google Scholar
  159. Nogueira M, de Oliveira JS (2006) Moerisia inkermanica and Blackfordia virginica at Antonina Bay, Paraná, Brazil. Pan-Am J Aquat Sci 1:35–42Google Scholar
  160. Ocaña-Luna A, Sánchez-Ramírez M, Aguilar-Durán R (2010) First record of Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa, Mastigiidae) in Mexico. Aquat Inv 5:S79–S83Google Scholar
  161. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2007) Global change and marine communities: alien species and climate change. Mar Pollut Bull 55:342–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Marchini A, Cantone G, Castelli A, Chimenz C, Cormaci M, Frogalia C, Furnari G, Gambi MC, Giaccone G, Giangrande A, Gravili C, Mastrototaro F, Mazziotti C, Orsi-Relini L, Piraino S (2011) Alien species along the Italian coasts: an overview. Biol Inv 13:215–237Google Scholar
  163. Oguz T, Fach B, Salihoglu B (2008) Invasion dynamics of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its impact on anchovy collapse in the Black Sea. J Plankton Res 30:1385–1397Google Scholar
  164. Ohata R, Masuda R, Ueno M, Fukunishi Y, Yamashita Y (2011) Effects of turbidity on survival of larval ayu and red sea bream exposed to predation by jack mackerel and moon jellyfish. Fish Sci 77:207–215Google Scholar
  165. Oliveira OMP (2007) The presence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Oslofjorden and considerations on the initial invasion pathways to the North and Baltic Seas. Aquat Inv 2:185–189Google Scholar
  166. Özgür E, Öztürk B (2008) A population of the alien jellyfish, Cassiopea andromeda (Forsskål, 1775) [Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Rhizostomea] in the Ölüdeniz Lagoon, Turkey. Aquat Inv 3:423–428Google Scholar
  167. Ozturk B, Isinibilir M (2010) An alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and its impacts to the Eastern Mediterranean part of Turkey. J Black Sea/Mediterranean Environ 16:149–156Google Scholar
  168. Paavola M, Olenin S, Leppäkoski E (2005) Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low species richness across European brackish water seas? Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 64:738–750Google Scholar
  169. Peach MB, Pitt KA (2005) Morphology of the nematocysts of the medusae of two scyphozoans, Catostylus mosaicus and Phyllorhiza punctata (Rhizostomeae): implications for prey capture. Invertebr Biol 124:98–108Google Scholar
  170. Pereladov MV (1988) Some observations for biota of Sudak Bay of the Black Sea. III All-Russian conference of marine biology, vol. 1. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp 237–238Google Scholar
  171. Piraino S, Boero F, Aeschbach B, Schmid V (1996) Reversing the life cycle: medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria Hydrozoa). Biol Bull 190:302–312Google Scholar
  172. Podar M, Haddock SHD, Sogin ML, Harbison GR (2001) A molecular phylogenetic framework for the Phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA genes. Mol Phyl Evol 21:218–230Google Scholar
  173. Poirrier MA, Mulino MM (1977) The impact of the 1975 Bonnet Carre spillway opening on epifaunal invertebrates of Lake Pontchartrain. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 93:11–17Google Scholar
  174. Preisler RK, Wasson K, Wolff WJ, Tyrrell MC (2009) Invasions of estuaries vs. the adjacent open coast: a global perspective. In: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems, ecological studies, vol 204. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 587–617Google Scholar
  175. Purcell JE (2005) Climate effects on formation of jellyfish and ctenophore blooms: a review. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:461–476Google Scholar
  176. Purcell JE (2012) Jellyfish and ctenophore blooms coincide with human proliferations and environmental perturbations. Ann Rev Mar Sci 4:209–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Purcell JE, Decker MB (2005) Effects of climate on relative predation by scyphomedusae and ctenophores on copepods in Chesapeake Bay during 1987–2000. Limnol Oceanogr 50:376–387Google Scholar
  178. Purcell JE, Cresswell FP, Cargo DG, Kennedy VS (1991) Differential ingestion and digestion of bivalve larvae by the scyphozoan Chrysaora quinquecirrha and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Biol Bull 180:103–111Google Scholar
  179. Purcell JE, White JR, Roman MR (1994) Predation by gelatinous zooplankton and resource limitation as potential controls of Acartia tonsa copepod populations in Chesapeake Bay. Limnol Oceanogr 39:263–278Google Scholar
  180. Purcell JE, Båmstedt U, Båmstedt A (1999) Prey, feeding rates, and asexual reproduction rates of the introduced oligohaline hydrozoan Moerisia lyonsi. Mar Biol 134:317–325Google Scholar
  181. Purcell JE, Breitburg DL, Decker MB, Graham WM, Youngbluth MJ, Raskoff KA (2001a) Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores in low dissolved oxygen environments: a review. In: Rabalais NN, Turner RE (eds) Coastal hypoxia: consequences for living resources and ecosystems, vol 58, Coastal and estuarine studies. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 77–100Google Scholar
  182. Purcell JE, Shiganova TA, Decker MB, Houde ED (2001b) The ctenophore Mnemiopsis in native and exotic habitats: U.S. estuaries versus the Black Sea basin. Hydrobiologia 451:145–176Google Scholar
  183. Purcell JE, Uye SI, Lo WT (2007) Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and direct consequences for humans: a review. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 350:153–174Google Scholar
  184. Re P (1996) Anchovy spawning in the Mira Estuary (south-western Portugal). Sci Mar 60(suppl2):141–153Google Scholar
  185. Rees JT, Gershwin LA (2000) Non-indigenous hydromedusae in California’s upper San Francisco Estuary: life cycles, distribution, and potential environmental impacts. Sci Mar 64(suppl 1):73–86Google Scholar
  186. Reeve MR, Walter MA (1978) Nutritional ecology of ctenophores – a review of recent research. Adv Mar Biol 15:249–287Google Scholar
  187. Reeve MR, Syms MA, Kremer P (1989) Growth dynamics of a ctenophore (Mnemiopsis) in relation to variable food supply. I. Carbon biomass, feeding, egg production, growth, and assimilation efficiency. J Plankton Res 11:535–552Google Scholar
  188. Reusch T, Bolte S, Sparwell M, Moss A, Javidpour J (2010) Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world’s most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Mol Ecol 19:2690–2699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Richards CL, Bossdorf O, Muth NZ, Gurevitch J, Pigliucci M (2006) Jack of all trades, master of some? On the role of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasions. Ecol Lett 9:981–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Rippingale R, Kelly S (1995) Reproduction of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Rhizostomeae) in a seasonally fluctuating salinity regime in Western Australia. Mar Freshwater Res 46:1145–1151Google Scholar
  191. Russell FS (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. II. Pelagic Scyphozoa with a supplement to the first volume on Hydromedusae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  192. Sai Sastry AGR, Chandramohan P (1989) Planktonic coelenterates of Vasishta Godavari estuary, east coast of India. Indian J Mar Sci 18:160–164Google Scholar
  193. Sakai AK, Allendorf FW, Holt JS, Lodge DM, Molofsky J, With KA, Baughman S, Cabin RJ, Cohen JE, Ellstrand NC, McCauley DE, O’Neil P, Parker IM, Thompson JN, Weller SG (2001) The population biology of invasive species. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 32:305–332Google Scholar
  194. Sandifer PA, Smith TLJ, Calder DR (1974) Hydrozoans as pests in closed-system culture of larval decapod crustaceans. Aquaculture 4:55–59Google Scholar
  195. Santhakumari V, Tiwari LR, Nair VR (1999) Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay harbour. Indian J Mar Sci 28:158–162Google Scholar
  196. Schäfer W (1955) Eine Qualle aus dem Indischen Ozean in der Agais. Natur Volk 85:241–245Google Scholar
  197. Schembri PJ, Deideun A, Vella PJ (2010) First record of Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae: Cassiopeidae) from the central Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biodiv Rec 3:e6Google Scholar
  198. Schroeter RE (2008) Biology and long-term trends of alien hydromedusae and striped bass in a brackish tidal marsh in the San Francisco Estuary. Dissertation, University of California DavisGoogle Scholar
  199. Schroth W, Jarms G, Streit B, Schierwater B (2002) Speciation and phylogeography in the cosmopolitan marine moon jelly, Aurelia sp. BMC Evol Biol 2:1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Selander E, Møller LF, Sundberg P, Tiselius P (2010) Parasitic anemone infects the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Biol Inv 12:1003–1009Google Scholar
  201. Shiganova TA (1993) Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and ichthyoplankton in the Sea of Marmara in October of 1992. Oceanology 33:900–903Google Scholar
  202. Shiganova TA, Malej A (2009) Native and non-native ctenophores in the Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea. J Plankton Res 31:61–71Google Scholar
  203. Shiganova TA, Bulgakova YV, Volovik SP, Mirzoyan ZA, Dudkin SI (2001) The new invader Beroe ovata Brown 1756 and its effect on the ecosystem in the northeastern Black Sea in August-September 1999. Hydrobiologia 451:187–197Google Scholar
  204. Shiganova TA, Dumont HJ, Mikaelyan A, Glazov DM, Bulgakova YV, Musaeva EI, Sorokin PY, Pautova LA, Mirzoyan ZA, Studenikina EI (2004) Interaction between the invading ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912, and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern Black Sea. In: Dumont H, Shiganova TA, Niermann U (eds) The Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black, Caspian and Mediterranean Seas and other Aquat. Inv., vol 35, NATO science series: IV. Earth and environmental sciences. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 33–70Google Scholar
  205. Shiganova TA, Christou ED, Siokou-Frangou I (2007) First finding of alien species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 in the Aegean Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 8:5–14Google Scholar
  206. Shoji J, Masuda R, Yamashita Y, Tanaka M (2005) Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentrations on behavior and predation rates on red sea bream Pagrus major larvae by the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and by juvenile Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius. Mar Biol 147:863–868Google Scholar
  207. Silveira F, Cornelius PFS (2000) New observations on medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) from the northeast and south Brazil. Acta Biol Leopold 22:9–18Google Scholar
  208. Simberloff D (2009) The role of propagule pressure in biological invasions. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 40:81–102Google Scholar
  209. Siokou-Frangou I, Sarantakos K, Epaminondas DC (2006) First record of the scyphomedusa Rhopilema nomadica Galil 1990 (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) in Greece. Aquat Invasions 1:194–195Google Scholar
  210. Smith LD (2009) The role of phenotypic plasticity in marine biological invasions. In: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems, ecological studies, vol 204. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 177–202Google Scholar
  211. Spanier E (1989) Swarming of jellyfishes along the Mediterranean cost of Israel. Israel J Zool 36:55–56Google Scholar
  212. Stewart E (2008) Jellyfish shut down Diablo Canyon power plant. http://www.independent.com/news/2008/oct/23/jellyfish-shut-down-diablo-canyon-power-plant. Accessed 25 Oct 2012
  213. Stoecker DK, Verity PG, Michaels AE, Davis LH (1987) Feeding by larval and post-larval ctenophores on microzooplankton. J Plankton Res 9:667–683Google Scholar
  214. Stone R (2005) Attack of the killer jellies. Science 309:1805–1806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Stoner EW, Layman CA, Yeager LA, Hassett HM (2011) Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on the abundance and size of epibenthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1109–1114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Strayer DL (2012) Eight questions about invasions and ecosystem functioning. Ecol Lett 15:1199–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sugiura Y (1963) On the life-history of rhizostome medusae. I. Mastigias papua L. Agassiz. Annot Zool Jap 36:194–202Google Scholar
  218. Sullivan BK, Doering PH, Oviatt CA, Keller AA, Frithsen JB (1991) Interactions with the benthos alter pelagic food web structure in coastal waters. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:2276–2284Google Scholar
  219. Symstad AJ (2000) A test of the effects of functional group richness and composition on grassland invasibility. Ecology 81:99–109Google Scholar
  220. Tendal OS, Jensen KR, Riisgård HU (2007) Invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi widely distributed in Danish waters. Aquat Inv 2:272–277Google Scholar
  221. Theil ME (1935) Zur Kenntnis der Hydromedusenfauna des Schwarzen Meeres. Zool Anz 111:161–174Google Scholar
  222. Thuesen EV, Rutherford LD, Brommer PL, Garrison K, Gutowska MA, Towanda T (2005) Intragel oxygen promotes hypoxia tolerance of scyphomedusae. J Exp Biol 208:2475–2482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Tilman D (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology 80:1455–1474Google Scholar
  224. Torchin ME, Lafferty KD (2009) Escape from parasites. In: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems, ecological studies, vol 204. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 203–214Google Scholar
  225. Tzikhon-Lukanina EA, Reznichenko OG, Lukasheva TA (1991) Quantitative aspects of feeding in the Black Sea ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Oceanology 31:272–276Google Scholar
  226. Tzikhon-Lukanina EA, Reznichenko OG, Lukasheva TA (1992) What ctenophore Mnemiopsis eats in the Black Sea inshore waters? Oceanology 32:724–729Google Scholar
  227. Uchida T (1954) Distribution of Scyphomedusae in Japanese and its adjacent waters. J Fac Sci Hokkaido Univ Ser VI 12:209–219Google Scholar
  228. Uye S (1994) Replacement of large copepods by small ones with eutrophication of embayments: cause and consequence. Hydrobiologia 292(293):513–519Google Scholar
  229. Väinölä R, Oulasvirta P (2001) The first record of Maeotias marginata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Baltic Sea: a Pontocaspian invader. Sarsia 86:401–404Google Scholar
  230. Van Ginderdeuren K, Hostens K, Hoffman S, Vansteenbrugge L, Soenen K, De Blauwe H, Robbens J, Vincx M (2012) Distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Aquat Inv 7:163–169Google Scholar
  231. Vannucci (1964) Hydrozoa e Scyphozoa. In: Vanzolini P (ed) História Natural de Organismos Aquátlcos do Brasil. Resultado de um Semlnárlo sobre História Natural de Organismos Aquátlcos do Brasil, São Paulo, dezembro 1963. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  232. Verity PG, Purcell PE, Frischer ME (2011) Seasonal patterns in size and abundance of Phyllorhiza punctata: an invasive scyphomedusa in coastal Georgia (USA). Mar Biol 158:2219–2226Google Scholar
  233. Vinogradov M, Shushkina E (1992) Temporal changes in community structure in the open Black Sea. Oceanology 32:485–491Google Scholar
  234. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA, Musaeva EI, Sorokin YP (1989) Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) (Ctenophora: Lobata) – new settlers in the Black Sea. Oceanology 29:293–298Google Scholar
  235. Vinogradov ME, Shishkina EA, Anokhina LL, Vostokov SV, Kucheruk NV, Lukashova TA (2000) Dense aggregations of the ctenophore Beroe ovata (Eschscholtz) near the north-east shore of the Black Sea. Oceanology 40:46–49Google Scholar
  236. Von Holle B, Simberloff D (2005) Ecological resistance to biological invasion overwhelmed by propagule pressure. Ecology 86:3213–3218Google Scholar
  237. Von Lendenfeld R (1884) The Scyphomedusae of the southern hemisphere. Proc Linn Soc New South Wales 9:155–169Google Scholar
  238. Wabnitz C, Taylor M, Green E, Razak T (2003) From ocean to aquarium. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  239. Wasson K, Zabin C, Bedinger L, Cristina Diaz M, Pearse J (2001) Biological invasions of estuaries without international shipping: the importance of intraregional transport. Biol Conserv 102:143–153Google Scholar
  240. Wintzer AP, Meek MH, Moyle PB (2011a) Trophic ecology of two non-native hydrozoan medusae in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Mar Freshwater Res 62:952–961Google Scholar
  241. Wintzer AP, Meek MH, Moyle PB (2011b) Life history and population dynamics of Moerisia sp., a non-native hydrozoan, in the upper San Francisco Estuary (U.S.A.). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 94:48–55Google Scholar
  242. Wintzer AP, Meek MH, Moyle PB, May B (2011c) Ecological insights into the polyp stage of non-native hydrozoans in the San Francisco Estuary. Aquat Ecol 45:151–161Google Scholar
  243. Wonham M, Walton W, Ruiz G, Frese A, Galil BS (2001) Going to the source: role of the invasion pathway in determining potential invaders. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215:1–12Google Scholar
  244. Zaika VE (1993) The drop of anchovy stock in the Black Sea: result of biological pollution? GFCM/FAO fisheries report no. 495, Annex III, pp 54–59Google Scholar
  245. Zhang JB (1982) Notes on the hydromedusae fauna of the China Sea areas. Acta Oceanol Sin 1:126–135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dauphin Island Sea LabDauphin IslandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Coastal SciencesUniversity of Southern MississippiOcean SpringsUSA
  3. 3.University of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA

Personalised recommendations