International Phenological Observation Networks: Concept of IPG and GPM

  • Frank-M. ChmielewskiEmail author
  • Stefan Heider
  • Susanne Moryson
  • Ekko Bruns


International phenological observation networks are of great importance for many applications in phenology. Data from these networks generally have a high quality standard (genetically identical plants, standardized observation guidelines, etc.) and cover different climatic regions. In this chapter we introduce two networks, the International Phenological Gardens in Europe (IPG) and the Global Phenological Monitoring Programme (GPM). Both observation networks are coordinated by the Humboldt-University of Berlin (Germany). These networks allow a phenological monitoring across lager geographical areas. At the end of each paragraph, we show some examples how these data can be used for scientific applications. They are of great importance to describe relationships between observed climate variability/change and plant development and they can be used to develop or validate phenological models which are able to project possible future shifts in plant development.


Phenological Stage Grow Season Length Phenological Data Corylus Avellana Phenological Observation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank-M. Chmielewski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefan Heider
    • 1
  • Susanne Moryson
    • 1
  • Ekko Bruns
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural Climatology, Department of Crop and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and HorticultureHumboldt-University of BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Networks and DataGerman Meteorological ServiceOffenbachGermany

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