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Antarctica

  • Lynda E. ChambersEmail author
  • Marie R. Keatley
  • Eric J. Woehler
  • Dana M. Bergstrom
Chapter

Abstract

Antarctica was the last continent to be discovered and colonized by people, and this has resulted in generally sparse meteorological, oceanographic and biological data for the Antarctic and much of the Southern Ocean. Within the Antarctic region, here defined to include all regions south of the Antarctic Polar Front, much of the land-based biological research occurs at or near international scientific stations, leading to some regions, such as the Amundsen Sea, being poorly researched. In the last decade, evidence has emerged of significant differences, but also some similarities, in species’ responses to changing environmental conditions, including climate change. However, most of the studies have been confined to larger organisms, such as seabirds and marine mammals, with few long-term studies on the phenology of plants, invertebrates and other species. This highlights the need for greater spatial and species coverage in the southern regions of the globe to assess and quantify regional and ecosystem-scale processes and patterns.

Keywords

Southern Ocean King Penguin Chinstrap Penguin Southern Elephant Seal Leopard Seal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Lily Gao and the staff at the Australian (National Meteorological Library). Patricia Selkirk for advice and references. We thank Valeria Ruoppolo for assistance with details on the South American research programs and Amy Winnard, Steve Pendlebury, Scott Carpentier and Phillip Reid for helpful comments on earlier drafts.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynda E. Chambers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marie R. Keatley
    • 2
  • Eric J. Woehler
    • 3
  • Dana M. Bergstrom
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Australian Weather and Climate ResearchBureau of MeteorologyMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Forest and Ecosystem ScienceUniversity of MelbourneCreswickAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaSandy BayAustralia
  4. 4.Australian Antarctic DivisionKingstonAustralia

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