North America

  • Mark D. SchwartzEmail author
  • Elisabeth G. Beaubien
  • Theresa M. Crimmins
  • Jake F. Weltzin


Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.


Nova Scotia Citizen Science Environment Canada Royal Botanical Garden Phenological Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



United States section: Thanks to Glen Conner for information on Dr. Samuel D. Martin and other early phenological observers and networks. We appreciate careful reviews provided by E. Denny, S. Newman, S. Phillips, and E. Stancioff. Erin Posthumus provided content for Table 5.1.

Canada section: Thanks to these regional coordinators for their contributions: S. Bailleul, M. Bishop, B. Charles, N. Iwanycki, K. Monson, M. Priesnitz, S. Ripley, V. Roy McDougall, D. Trowsdale-Mutafov. M. Doyle and R. McLeman contributed information from Environment Canada and the University of Ottawa respectively.

L. Seale and M. Hall-Beyer kindly edited the article. Thanks to Environment Canada and Nature Canada for their help in coordinating and promoting the PlantWatch program. A bouquet of flowers to each of the almost 700 Albertans who observed and reported over the years starting in 1987!

This chapter complies with US Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practice standards. It has undergone peer and policy review and approval.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Schwartz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elisabeth G. Beaubien
    • 2
  • Theresa M. Crimmins
    • 3
  • Jake F. Weltzin
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.National Coordinating OfficeUSA National Phenology NetworkTucsonUSA

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