• Annette MenzelEmail author


Europe has a long tradition of systematic phenological data collection from a range of different environments. In recent times this data has proved invaluable in demonstrating the impact of climate warming on our natural environment together with providing a means by which to ground truth remotely sensed information. However, since the networks evolved in different countries with different traditions of data observation and collection aggregation at a continental scale is challenging. Here we provide a snapshot of some of the professional and citizen science-based national phenology networks, and describe a number of recently established pan-European initiatives to explore ways to establish a standardized framework for plant monitoring, data collection, quality control and transfer. Finally, we highlight areas such as species or groups of high value for nature conservation which require further research.


North Atlantic Oscillation Index World Meteorological Organization Phenological Observation Phenological Phasis National Weather Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I kindly thank my phenology colleagues from the COST 725 action, especially the chair Elisabeth Koch (Austria) as well as Rein Ahas (Estonia), Olga Braslavska (Slovak Republic), Isabelle Chuine (France), Zoltan Dunkel (Hungary), Elisabeth Koch (Austria), Jiri Nekovar (Czech Republic), Tim Sparks (United Kingdom), Andreja Susnik (Slovenia), and Arnold VanVliet (The Netherlands), for their valuable contributions.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Ecosystem ManagementTechnische Universität MünchenFreisingGermany

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